National Geographic : 1917 Oct
and went to the Kingdom of Aragon, a very rich and well supplied kingdom. I found five great cities in it. The chief one, where the kings are crowned, is Zaragosa (Saragossa). It is bounded by Navarre, Castile, France, and the Pyrenees. The king has for his device nine pales gules and or" (1044). (Nine strokes red and gold.) There is a picturesque legend concerning the adoption of this device. Far back in his tory an heiress of Aragon married the Count of Barcelona, and the gold shield of the latter was adopted by the kingdom. After a battle, however, Raymond Berenger, Count of Barce lona, wiped his bloody fingers down the shield and thereafter it became "or with five pales gules"-gold with five red strokes. "I left Barcelona and went along the coast to the country of Ampuria, and thence to the city of Narbona (Narbonne), which is by the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. The lord of it has a white flag with a red cross like that of Tolosa (1029), and in each quarter a sign like this (1045), for this city belonged to Ray mondo Conde de Tolosa. . . "I ascended the mountains and down to Genoua (Genoa), a very rich city on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The lord of it has for his device a white flag with a red cross, and with the word 'Justicia'" (1046). It was about the time of the Franciscan's visit that Genoa elected its first doge, Simone Boccanera, 15 years after whose death, in 1363, the republic city engaged in one of its many disastrous wars with Venice, during which the Genoese galleys reached the very threshold of their rival in the Adriatic and could have dic tated a most advantageous peace had they not boasted that they would "bit and bridle the horses of Saint Mark." "I departed from Genoua and entered Lom bardy, where there are many great and rich cities. I left Lombardy and came to Pisa, a land very fertile with a temperate climate. It has a flag gules (red)" (1047). Pisa had reached the zenith of its power during the century preceding the friar's visit. Its red flag had been banished from Corsica by the Genoese in 1300, and 23 years later the kings of Aragon supplanted it with their own over Sardinia. "Leaving Pisa, I came to Tuscany, in which there is a city called Florence. The lord of it has for his device a white flag with a red cross. I went from Tuscany to the noble city of Rome, which is the head of the empire of the Romans. The devices of Rome are a red flag with a gold bar, on which are letters" (1048). (S. P. Q. R.- Senatus Populusque Romanus the Roman Senate and People.) TRANSPLANTED LILIES OF FRANCE "I left Rome and arrived at Naples, a very luxurious, well supplied, and pleasant land, in which are the provinces of Pulla (Apulia) and Calabria. There are many rich cities. The King of Naples has for his device a purple flag with gold fleurs de lys, for he is of the house of France. Above is a red slip which they call a label (1049). "I departed from Naples and went over to the island of Sicily, a short passage. It is very luxurious and well supplied. There are in it eight large cities. This Sicily has a flag parted per saltire (the field divided into four parts by two lines), two quarters argent (silver or white), with eagles sable, the other two bars gules and or, for the king is of the House of Aragon (o150). .. "I went to the city of Venecia, which is at the head of the gulf on the sea. The lord of this Venice has for his flag-argent, a winged lion gules like the lion of St. Mark" (1o51). The friar omits the words "Pax tibi, Marce, Evangelista meus" ("Peace be with thee, Mar cus, my evangelist"), which are supposed to be inscribed on the open book or scroll held by the lion. "I departed from Venecia in the same galley and coasted along the side of Esclavonia (Croatia-Slavonia), passing by a city called Aquylea (Aquilea), and another called Triesa (Trieste). The king of this Esclavonia has for his device a yellow flag in halves; the red half near the hoist has a white star and the other half is yellow (1052). "In the Kingdom of Esclavonia there is a very high mountain called Boxina (Bosnia), where four rivers rise. All these rivers enter the Kingdom of Ungria (Hungary) and unite with the great river Danube, which rises in the Alps of Germany. Now this land of Boxina (Bosnia) marches with Germany and Ungria, and the mountains are in its center, and they are mountains well peopled, with a well sup plied land; but they are not Catholic Chris tians, and the king of these mountains has the same arms as those of the King of Esclavonia (1053). "I departed from Boxina and went along the coast to the city of Jara (Zara), thence to Sinbochon (Sebenico in Dalmatia), and thence to Narent (in Dalmatia, at the mouth of the Narenta) (1054). 'With this Narent there marches a city called Dulcecno (Dulcigno), which, with the adjacent mountainous country, is very pleasant and well supplied. In these mountains two very great rivers rise-one called Dranoya (the Drave), the other Pirus (Epirus or Drina) which flow into the Kingdom of Ungria, fall ing into the great river Danube and forming in Ungria ten islands. They call the first Ungria La Mayor, whence the Kingdom of Ungria took its name. "Know that in this Ungria there are many rich cities. The Kingdom of Ungria (Hun gary) marches with Greece and Germany, Esclavonia, Bolonia (Bologna), and Burgaria (Bulgaria). The flag of this kingdom is part ed per fess (that is, in two equal parts), upper half with fleurs de lys of France, because the king is of the House of France (Louis I of Hungary, 1342-1382, came, in the male line, from Charles of Anjou, brother of St. Louis), the lower half bars gules and argent (o155). "I departed from the Kingdom of Hungary and went along the coast to a city called Durazo (Durazzo). There I took ship and proceeded to the island of the Morea (the Peloponnesus, the peninsula portion of the mainland of Greece). In it there are seven great cities (1056 and 1057). "I left the island of the Morea and went to the island of Rodas (Rhodes). This island belongs to the order of St. John" (o158).