National Geographic : 1917 Oct
device is the royal crown, supported by two lions regardant, each of them gold crowned. The whole is upon a royal mantle, which, in its turn, is crowned. 998. The standard of the King of Saxony reproduces part of the heraldic device found in the arms of the ruling family, namely, a green crown of rue cutting diagonally across ten alternate black and gold bars. 999. The flags of the maritime States of Germany are black, white, and red, black at the top and red at the bottom, with an anchor and crown in the center, where the white stripe is swelled out to accommodate them, and with the badge of the respective States, 1003-100oo8, inclusive, as a canton in the upper corner next the staff. o000. The imperial marine flag is like those of the maritime States, except that the badge is omitted. 100oo. The standard of the King of Wurtt emburg is yellow with three half horns of a stag in black, antlered. In each of the four corners of the standard is a crown. 1002. The Grandduchy of Hesse has a standard consisting of three horizontal stripes, red at the top and bottom and white between, with the white stripe larger than the others. Upon the white stripe is a blue shield charged with a lion having a forked tail and striped with red and white. The standard has a crown in each of its four corners. 1003. This badge, with its black eagle, placed as a canton on the flag of the German mari time States, proclaims that the ship flying it belongs to Prussia. 1004. The badge of the free city of Bremen is red and bears an antique key of silver. It is crowned with gold. 1oo5. Placed in the canton of the flag of the maritime States of Germany, this badge proclaims the authority of Oldenburg. On it is a shield the first quarter of which, made up of red and yellow stripes, represent Olden burg; the second quarter, a gold cross on blue, represents Delmenhorst; the third quarter, a golden cross surmounted by a miter on blue, represents Lubeck; the fourth quarter is checky, of four rows of red and white, and proclaims Birkenfeld. In the point of the shield is a golden lion, representing Jever. ioo6. The badge of Hamburg is a red square upon which is placed a castle having three silver towers, over an anchor. 1007. Mecklenburg's badge has a yellow field upon which appears the head of a black buffalo with red mouth, white horns, and golden crown. 0oo8. The badge of Lubeck has a black double eagle displayed, its tongue, beak, and claws red, and its breast charged with an es cutcheon halved in white and red. ioog. When the flag of the imperial marine of Germany omits the golden anchor and crown from the middle stripe of white and substitutes the crowned black eagle of the Em pire, it proclaims that the building or vessel displaying it is under the jurisdiction of the Foreign Office. ioio. When the flag of the imperial marine has this badge substituted for the anchor and crown, it means that the ship or building dis- playing it is under the jurisdiction of the other departments of the German Government. ionI. This badge, in place of,the anchor and crown on the flag of the imperial marine of Germany, transforms it into the flag of the postal service of the Empire. 1012. Merchant vessels in the naval reserve of Germany bear the black, white, and red flag of the German merchant marine, with the black cross on the end next the staff. 1013. The landes flag of Prussia consists of a white field bordered at the top and bottom with black and bearing on the half next the staff the displayed black eagle of Prussia. 1014. The flag of the German Governors of East Africa and Kiao-Chau was the merchant flag with the eagle of the Empire on the cen tral white stripe. The former colony has now been practically conquered by British forces and the Japanese have taken charge of Kiao Chau. 1015. The flag of the commander-in-chief of the - aval forces of Germany has a square white held occupied by the black cross, with guns arranged in the form of a saltire thereon. o116. The flag of the inspector general of the German navy has a red-bordered white field with the black cross quartering the white. 1017. The ensign and merchant flag of Turkey consists of a red field upon which is imposed a white crescent moon and a five pointed star. The Turks adopted this device when they captured Constantinople in 1463. It originally was the symbol of Diana, who was the patroness of Byzantium. When the Turks adopted the crescent as a badge of triumph it promptly fell into disuse in the western world, and they secured a complete monopoly upon it. Though originally a pagan symbol, it re mained throughout the rise and development of the Greek Church a special mark of Con stantinople. Even to this day in Moscow and other Russian cities the crescent and the cross may be seen combined on the churches, the object being to indicate the Byzantine origin of the Orthodox Church. The origin of this quarter moon dates from the time of Emperor Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. While he was trying to take the city he set his soldiers to work on a dark night to undermine the walls, but the crescent moon appeared in time to reveal the design to the people and Philip was thwarted. In acknowledgment the Byzantines erected a statue to Diana and made the crescent moon the symbol of their city. 1018. The personal flag of the Sultan of Turkey, which corresponds to the royal stand ards of other monarchies, or the President's flag in our own country, is scarlet and bears in the center a device which changes with each succession to the throne. This device, accord ing to tradition, originated in the fourteenth century, when Sultan Murad, being unable to write his name on a treaty, dipped his open hand in ink and pressed it on the document. In the spaces of the figure thus made the scribes wrote his name, the title Khan, and the epithet "Ever Victorious." Now, the name of the reigning sovereign, within the same figure, appears on the flag, surrounded by a rayed halo of somewhat starlike form.