National Geographic : 1917 Oct
who controls the appointment of justices of the peace and issues commissions in the local military organizations, and in earlier times was charged with the defense of his county in case of disturbance. 844. The flag of British diplomatic func tionaries is that of the Empire, bearing upon the intersection of the crosses a white shield surrounded by a garland. The shield is charged with the royal arms-that is, the lions of Eng land, the red lion of Scotland, and the harp of Ireland-in the quarters corresponding to those of the royal standard (833), with a lion and a unicorn, rampant, for supporters. 845-860. These are the flags of various de partments of the British Government. BRITISH COLONIAL FLAGS The union jack (829) is the national flag of the colonies as well as of the mother country, and, although it is a rule more honored in its breach than in its observance, no cther flag is to be flown ashore. The ensigns are, strictly speaking, maritime flags and are not supposed to be displayed ashore. According to British flag law, the union jack, in its plain condition and without emblazonment or badge, is the only flag an individual or corporation in Brit ish realms may properly fly. However, since the shipping of the principal colonies is accus tomed to fly the red ensign with the badge of the colony represented in the fly (see 871, 911, 968, etc.), this flag is frequently, if not indeed usually, displayed by the people of the several colonies as their particular flag. Vessels bear ing colonial governors or other administrative officials of badge-possessing rank fly the union jack with a badge of the colony placed within a wreath at the intersection of the crosses. Vessels of the colonial public service display the blue ensign with the badge of the colony from which it hails in the fly. 861. The badge of Gibraltar is a castle and key, appropriate to the strategic position of this natural fortress. An inscription on a scroll below represents Mount Calpe, Calpe being the ancient name of the European Pillar of Hercules as distinct from Ape's Hill, the African Pillar. 862. The badge of Malta is a gold-bordered shield of white and red, and not the eight pointed silver cross of the Hospitallers (see 1169). 863. The badge of Cyprus has two red lions adapted from the antique. 864. The badge of the Isle of Man consists of an escutcheon upon which are three tri corporate running legs. They are joined at the upper part of the thighs and flexed in a triangle. Once these legs were the arms of Sicily, but they were bare; when appropriated by the Manxmen, they were first supplied with hose, later incased in armor, and finally equipped with spurs. 865. Alderney's badge is a green medallion bearing a golden lion crowned and rampant. 866. Jersey contents herself with a badge showing the three lions of England. 867. The badge of Guernsey shows the three lions of England with the addition of a sprig at the top. 868. The flag of the Governor General of Canada consists of the national flag of the British Empire with the arms of Canada, sur rounded by a wreath and crowned, imposed upon the intersection of the crosses. 869. The badge of Canada has a shield quartered. In the first quarter is the shield of Ontario (872), in the second of Quebec (873), in the third that of Nova Scotia (874), and in the fourth that of New Brunswick (875). The provinces of Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and British Columbia do not appear, having joined the Dominion after the arms were de vised. Around the escutcheon are intertwined wreaths and above it the crown of the Empire. 870. The blue ensign of Canada is the Brit ish blue ensign with the addition of the es cutcheon of the Colonial Government imposed on the fly end. 871. The merchant flag of Canada is the red ensign of the British merchant marine, with the shield of the Canadian Government imposed on the field. 872. Ontario's badge has an escutcheon, the upper third of which bears a cross of St. George on white and the lower two-thirds three maple leaves on green. 873. The badge of Quebec is an escutcheon of gold with a horizontal bar of red in the center. At the top of the shield are the lilies of France, which proclaim the old French do minion. The lion of England on the red bar proclaims the present rule, and the maple leaf at the bottom is the emblem of Canada itself. 874. Nova Scotia's badge is an escutcheon of gold with a horizontal bar of blue in the middle. The bar bears a silver salmon. Above and below the blue stripe are thistles, which are reminiscent of Scotland (see also 386). 875. Bearing the golden lion ,of England at the top and the ancient lymphad or galley be low, the badge of New Brunswick has the same colors in its field as that of Quebec. 876. Manitoba's badge is an escutcheon bearing the cross of St. George at the top on white and a natural-colored buffalo on green below. 877. Prince Edward Island, which joined the Dominion in 1873, has for its badge a shield which bears the British lion at the top on red and two trees, one large and one small, on white. The inscription is "Parva sub in genti" (The little under the great). 878. British Columbia's badge consists of a shield bearing the union jack at the top and a rising sun below, its rays extending over five blue and white horizontal stripes which occupy the middle section of the shield. 879. Newfoundland is Great Britain's "senior colony," being the earliest discovered, though not continuously occupied, of British overseas dominions. Its badge is a Mercury introduc ing to Britannia a kneeling sailor who has just landed from a boat. "These gifts I bring you" is the inscription. At the top are the words "Terra Nova." 880. Bermuda's badge is a white shield on which is represented the wreck of the Sea Venture, under Sir George Somers, in 1609. There is shown a cliff loftier than the ship's masthead, and the imposed escutcheon bearing the scene is supported by a red lion.