National Geographic : 1917 Oct
782. Repair ships of the Netherlands fly a flag with the regulation red, white, and blue bars, the staff end of the red bar giving way to white and forming a canton upon which is placed a red anchor capped by a crown. 783. The royal standard of Norway has a red field upon which is centered a golden lion rampant holding a battle-ax. 784. Norway's ensign is red and three tailed, a blue cross edged with white extending to a point between the swallow-tail. It thus preserves the shape of the Swedish ensign, from which it was fashioned, that ensign hav ing a yellow cross on a blue field (see 826). 785. The merchant flag of Norway is like the ensign (784), except that the swallow-tail effect is omitted. 786. The senior admiral's flag of Norway consists of the ensign with the addition of a saltire cross of white in the upper quarter next to flagstaff. 787. The imperial standard of Persia con sists of a blue square field with the national colors in a small canton in the upper corner next to the staff. In the center is a white circle on which the Persian coat-of-arms ap pears, showing a lion holding a sword, a rising sun in the background, and the crown of the empire above the lion. The lower half of the circle is bordered by a wreath. 783. The military flag of Persia is unique in that it embodies a very pale shade of green and a delicate shade of pink as the upper and lower hues of its tricolor. The middle stripe is white and bears the Persian sword-carrying lion with the sun peeping over his back. The crown of the empire is imposed upon the green stripe. The wreath rests upon the pink. 789. The ensign of Persia is like the mili tary flag, except that the crown and wreath above and below the lion are omitted. 790. The merchant flag of Persia is the same green, white, and pink arrangement as seen in the ensign and military flag of the nation, but without the Persian lion. 791. The colors of the flag of Portugal are green and red, the third of the field next the staff green, and the two-thirds at the fly end red. The arms of the country are centered on the dividing line between the two colors. These arms consist of a large silver shield upon which are five small blue ones arranged in the form of a cross, each of them bearing five plates of silver. Around the shield is a red border upon which are placed seven golden castles. Alfonso I defeated five Moorish princes in the historic battle of Ourique and adopted the five small blue shields to com memorate his triumph. The five white spots on the small shields represent the five wounds of Christ, in whose strength Alfonso believed he had defeated the infidels. The red border of the shield was added by Alphonse III in 1252, after his marriage to a daughter of the King of Castile. The circle of gold upon which the shield and its border are imposed, together with the green of the flag, which is that of the cross and ribbon of the Knights of St. Benedict of Aviz, commemorate the fame of Prince Henry the Navigator. 792. The flag of the President of Portugal is solid green, with the Portuguese coat-of .arms in the center. 793. The flag of the Governor General of the provinces of Portugal is white, with a strip of green placed horizontally across the field and the coat-of-arms centered on it. 794. The flag of the dependent Kingdom of Poland (so nominated after the Napoleonic wars) has a white field with the blue cross of St. Andrew, which proclaims Russian suzer ainty. Upon the red canton is a crowned spread eagle. 795. Roumania's flag has three vertical stripes, blue next the flagstaff, yellow in the middle, and red' on the fly. In the standard the blue and the red bars are narrow and the yellow very wide. Upon the yellow is placed the national coat-of-arms, a canopy of ermine on which is a crowned shield. On the quar tered field of the shield appear a golden eagle displayed on blue, a lion's head in gold dis played on red, a golden demilion issuing from an antique crown on red, and two dolphins in gold displayed on blue. There is also a small shield of pretense quartered in white and black. The shield is supported by golden lions ram pant. The motto, "Nihil sine Deo" (Nothing without God), is below the shield on a ribbon. Four crowns appear, one in each corner of the flag. 796. The Roumanian ensign is like the standard, except that the three stripes are of equal width, and crowns in the four corners of the flag are omitted. 797. Roumania's merchant flag is blue, yel low, and red, like the ensign, except that the arms are omitted. 798. The Roumanian coast guard flag has the national colors, together with an anchor, above which is a crown on the yellow stripe. RUSSIAN FLAGS 799. The ensign of the Russian navy is a blue cross of St. Andrew upon a field of white. The Russians venerate St. Andrew as their patron saint, believing that it was he who se cured the adoption of Christianity by their an cestors. It has been asserted that he preached in Scythia. Peter the Great, under his name and protection, in the year 1698, instituted St. Andrew's as the most noble order of Knight hood of the Empire. St. Andrew is also the patron saint of Scotland, but there the cross is white upon a field of blue (see 831). 800. The white, blue, and red horizontal stripes of the Russian merchant flag are remi niscent of the day when Peter the Great was learning ship-building in Holland. The Dutch flag is a tricolor of red, white, and blue. Peter, in making his flag, turned these colors upside down, but was afterward advised that he was flying the flag employed by the Dutch as a sig nal of distress and disaster. He thereupon re vised his flag, putting the white at the top and the red at the bottom, with the blue between. 801. The flag of the volunteer fleet of Rus sia is the same as the merchant flag, except that there is a trumpet in the center of the blue field. 802. Russia's customs flag consists of a blue field with a canton in the upper corner next the staff showing the merchant flag in minia ture, while in the lower corner next the staff are two combination caducei and tridents, crossed.