National Geographic : 1917 Oct
the outer border the inscription, "Republica de Paraguay." 501. The ensign of Paraguay is composed of three bars-the upper red, the middle white, the lower blue-running horizontally. In the center on the obverse side appears the national coat-of-arms. On the reverse side, also in the center, is the seal of the Hacienda (Treasury), a circle bearing the inscription, "Paz y Jus ticia" (Peace and Justice), in the center of which is depicted a lion in a vigilant attitude, defending the Phrygian cap-the symbol of liberty-above him on a pike. 502. The national standard and flag of Peru is composed of three vertical stripes, the end ones red and the middle one white. On the latter appears the coat-of-arms with its crest. and surrounded at its base by a laurel branch to the left and a palm to the right, both tied together at their lower ends. This flag was established by the Peruvian Congress which met in 1825 and has never been changed. 503. The merchant flag of Peru is the same as the national ensign, except that the coat-of arms is omitted. 504. The merchant flag of Paraguay has the same colors as the national ensign, the coat of-arms being omitted; in its place appears at the end of the white stripe next to the flag staff the seal of the department having to do with merchant marine matters. 505. The flag of the admiral of the Para guayan. navy is a swallow-tailed banner in the national colors, with a yellow half moon on the end of the white bar nearest the swallow tail. 5o6. In 1912 the Congress of Salvador or dered a return to the original coat-of-arms and flag of Central America as they existed in the days of the "United Provinces of the Center of America." The flag consists of the familiar three horizontal bars, the upper and lower blue and the central one white, with the coat-of-arms of the country in the middle of the white bar. This is the flag for ports and vessels and for government envoys to foreign countries. 507. The merchant flag does not bear the coat-of-arms, but on the middle stripe is in scribed in silver letters, "Dios, Union y Lib ertad." 508. Uruguay has but one flag for its na tional banner and the emblem of its merchant marine. This consists of nine stripes, five white and four blue, white at the top and bot tom. In the upper corner next to the staff is a white canton on which appears a blazing sun. This is known as "El Sol de Mayo" (The Sun of May), symbolizing the awakening of the colony into independent national life. 50g. The escutcheon of Uruguay is an oval crowned with a sun and divided into four quarters. In the upper right-hand division is depicted; on a field of blue, a pair of scales, symbolizing equality and justice; in the upper left-hand division, on a field of silver, the Cerro of Montevideo, as a symbol of power; in the lower right-hand division, on a field of silver, a horse running loose, symbolizing lib erty; and in the left-hand lower quarter, on a blue field, an ox, as a symbol of abundance. The field is inclosed within two branches of olive and laurel joined at the bottom by a bow of azure. 510. The law establishing the coat-of-arms of Salvador says: "The escutcheon of El Sal vador shall be an equilateral triangle. At its base shall appear a cordillera of five volcanoes located on a strip of land appearing to be washed by both seas- in the upper part a rain bow curved above; beneath an arc, a liberty cap radiating light, and in the form of a semi circle an inscription, "15 de Setiembre 1821." Surrounding the triangle and in the form of a circle shall be inscribed in letters of gold, "Republica de El Salvador en la America Central," and at the base of the triangle, "Dios, Union y Libertad." The great seal of the na tion, that of the Secretary of the National Assembly, and that of government representa tives and tribunals of justice bear the same coat-of-arms. 511. The coat-of-arms of Venezuela was established under a decree of 1905. It consists of a shield divided into three parts, the one at the right yellow, with a sheaf of seven heads of wheat. The second section is red, bearing arms and two national flags bound together with a wreath of laurel. The third section occupies the entire lower portion of the shield, is blue, and bears an untamed white horse. The crest of the shield is an emblem of plenty, two cornucopias flowing with fruit. At the lower edge of the shield is a branch of laurel and palm tied together by a ribbon, bearing in gold letters the following inscription: "Inde pendencia-Libertad-5 de Julio de 1811-24 de Marzo de 1854-Dios y Federacion" (Inde pendence-Liberty-God and the Federation). July 5, 1811, was the date of the republic's declaration of independence, and March 24, 1854, the date of the abolition of slavery. THE NAVAL FLAGS OF THE WORLD 514-727 . These flags and pennants, showing all of the flags of command, commission pen nants, jacks, and pilot flags of the navies of the world, are used in the same manner as the corresponding ones of the United States, and the reader is directed to descriptions 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 58, and 64-68, inclusive, for in formation as to the time, occasion, and manner of their respective use.