National Geographic : 1918 Dec
516 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE THE PORTUGUESE * The Portuguese poets attribute the separate ex istence of their nation and language to the Lusi tani, who once occupied the west of the penin sula as far north as the Douro, and are immor Stalized by their intrepid attacks upon the Romans, At least from them Lusi tania, the poetical Latin name of the country, is derived. Portugal was born on the battlefield. That was the age of chivalry. War against the infidels, ante dating the Crusades, at tracted t h e foremost knights of Christendom. Among them was Henry of Burgundy, in prowess little inferior to the Cid. Alphonso of Castile re warded his valor with his dughter's hand and created him Count of Portus Kale on the Douro. The son of Henry, Alphonso, against desperate odds, inflicted a great defeat on the Moors at Ourique in 1139. His exultant sol diers proclaimed him King of Portus Kale, now become Portugal. Henry refused the crown conferred only by the army. A States Gen eral was convened to Photograph by Edgar K. Frank overcome his scruples. A STURDY, INDUSTRIOUS, EFFICIENT TRIO, TYPICAL OF THEIR That assembly is remark able. In it, for the first RACE---IE DUTCH time in European history, The world owes much to the folk whose ancestral home is the land representatives of the wrested from the sea and preserved by dikes. The Dutch were the common people sat and first people to afford an asylum for free thought. People ostracized acted as full equals of from their own countries betook themselves to Rotterdam and Am- the clergy and nobles. sterdam, as they later did to London, to Geneva, and finally to The assembly showed America. the instinct of newborn nationality. Its enact ing country, even across the Pyrenees as far ments frequently repeat Portugal and Portu as the Loire, in France. guese, as if the words were pleasant. The at In unusual degree Spanish and Portuguese tacks of Castile, which regarded the Portuguese language, life, and character are the product of as rebellious vassals, unified the nation. Their historical development. Yet little line of cleav- less sonorous, more nasal western dialect, here age between them appears until after the inva- tofore disdained, was now encouraged as a sion of the Moslem Saracens and Moors. That brand of nationality. invasion, begun in 71o, deluged the entire penin- * See also, in NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGA sula. Charlemagne, hastening to repel the in- ZINE, "The Greatness of Little Portugal," by vaders, was defeated at the Pass of Ronces- Oswald Crawford, and "The Woods and Gar valles and hurled back. The resistance of the dens of Portugal," by Martin Hume (October, Christians, at first hopeless, never relaxed. 191o).