National Geographic : 1919 Jan
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE A few years ago this store had both horse-drawn and motor vehicles in its delivery service. The question of the relative cost of the two kinds of trans portation frequently arose, and it was finally decided to put it to the test of ex pert accounting. The costs for a long period were kept, and when the balance sheet was made up it was found that the horse had lost out by such a decisive showing that the whole service was mo torized. In times gone by Chicago has been re garded in the East as a place inhabited . by the rough-and-ready type of American more concerned with the amassing of piles of money than with the development of the finer phases of life. When it is remembered that fourscore years ago the city had little more than a name, and was without a railroad or a canal; that it could not boast of a sewer nor of a paved street; that there were but few sidewalks; that mudholes deeper than usual were marked by signs reading, "No bottom here-the shortest road to China!"-when these things are remem bered, and then with them is contrasted the splendid city, with its world-serving industries, its great business institutions, its wonderful city-betterment plans, its beautiful art institute, its famous musi cal organizations, its internationally fa mous universities, one must feel thank ful that there was a rough-and-ready day in the city's history during which the foundations of culture could be laid deep and lasting. With an educational system following the same lines as the New York system, with a financial district that is as solid and as substantial as the rock of Gibral tar, with a health department that has probably, made the most thorough study of the tuberculosis situation ever under taken by any major municipality, Chi cago occupies no secondary role among the big cities of the world. CHICAGO'S SOLICITUDE FOR THE DEAF No city in the country has done as much in the fitting of its deaf children for normal lives as Chicago. The fore most authorities have long since realized that the only way to teach speech to the deaf in any way that will make it valu- able to them is to have them use it out of the class-rooms as well as in school. The child that learns to make use of signs is prone to resort to them, since speech and lip-reading are difficult at first. Such children are in the selfsame boat with the child that studies French in the class-room and leaves it behind elsewhere. Unless one learns to think in French, it takes an effort to use the language. And no child can think in a foreign tongue who utilizes it no further than the class-room. Chicago 'realizes this, and has devel oped all of her public education of the deaf accordingly. Practically every deaf child is being taught under the more mod ern system-a system for which the coun try owes a debt to Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. The city has acknowledged this debt by naming its principal day school for deaf children in his honor.* Chicago is a city with a, past, whose "I will" spirit has overcome many an obstacle to its progress; a city with a present that meets every test that war or peace puts upon it; a city with a future of the richest promise. The late James J. Hill, whose services as a constructive geographer contributed so much to the development of our na tional resources and the building of our inland empire, understood well the oper ation of the fundamental laws of geog raphy, and thereby was able to forecast and. capitalize the future. Before he died he declared that within a generation the Pacific coast would be the home of twenty million people, and that Chicago, the cross-roads between the two sea boards, would have five million. One who studies Chicago cannot es cape the feeling that Hill was a modest prophet and that the city's splendid achievements of yesterday and its won derful accomplishments of today augur the fulfillment of plans for tomorrow which will be a source of pride to every American. * Under the leadership of the "American Association for the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf" (of Washington, D. C.), three-fourths of the deaf pupils in the schools of the United States are being taught the new method of communication, and Illinois' metropolis leads the procession with a Ioo per cent enrollment in schools using that method.