National Geographic : 1920 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. JOHN E. PILLSBURY, President GILBERT GROSVENOR, Director HENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-Director O. P. AUSTIN, Secretary GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Associate Secretary JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR AND DIRECTOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor and Vice-Director WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER Assistant Editor 1917-1919 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Inventor of the telephone J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University A. W. GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine ROBERT E. PEARY Discoverer of the North Pole, Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy GEORGE OTIS SMITI Director of U. S. Geological Sur vey O. H. TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey HENRY WHITE Member American Peace Com mission, and Recently U. S. Ambassador to France, Italy, etc. RALPH A. GRAVES Assistant Editor JESSIE L. BURRALL Chief of School Service BOARD OF MANAGERS 1918-1920 CHARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD In Charge of Agricultural Explo rations, U. S . Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief of Illustrations Division 1919-1921 WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Ex-President of the United States FRANKLIN K. LANE Secretary of the Interior C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture RUDOLPI KAUFFMANN Managing Editor The Evening Star GEORGE R. PUTNAM T. L. MACDONALD Commissioner U. S. Bureau of FAC Lighthouses M.D., F. A. C. S. GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-Game Photographer S. N. D. NORTH Formerly Director U. S. Bureau of Census JOHN E. PILLSBURY GRANT SQUIRES Rear Admiral U. S . Navy, For Military Intelligence Division, merly Chief Bureau of Navi General Staff, New York gation ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purpose for which it was founded thirty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, are desired. For material that the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage, and be ad dressed: Editor, National Geographic Magazine, 16th and M Streets, Washington, D. C. Important contributions to geographic science are constantly being made through expeditions financed by funds set aside from the Society's income. For example, immediately after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observa tions of this remarkable phenomenon, So important was the completion of this work considered that four expeditions have followed and the extraordinary scientific data resultant given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures, evidently formed by nature as a huge safety-valve for erupting Katmai. By proclamation of the President of the United States, this area has been created a National Monument. The Society organized and supported a large party, which made a three-year study of Alaskan glacial fields, the most remarkable in existence. At an expense of over $50,000 it has sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. The discoveries of these expeditions form a large share of the world's knowledge of a civilization which was waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. Trained geol ogists were sent to Mt. Pelee, La Soufriere, and Messina following the eruptions and earthquakes. The Society also had the honor of subscribing a substantial sum to the historic expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole April 6, 9go9. Not long ago the Society granted $20,000 to the Federal Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people and incorporated into a National Park. Copyright, I92o, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July I, 1918.