National Geographic : 1921 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President HENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer O. P . AUSTIN, Secretary BOYD TAYLOR, Assistant Treasurer GEORGE W. IIUTCIISON, Associate Secretary FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER Assistant Editor CHARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD In Charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P. AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S . Bureau of Lighthouses GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-game Photographer GRANT SQUIRES Military Intelligence Division, General Staff, New York JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor R RALPH A. GRAVES FR Assistant Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Ex-President of the United States FRANKLIN K. LANE Formerly Secretary of Interior C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S . Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN Managing Editor The Evening Star T. L . MACDONALD M.D., F.A.C.S. S. N. D. NORTH Formerly Director U. S. Bureau of Census JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo graphic Magazine ANKLIN L. FISHER Chief of Illustrations Division ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Inventor of the telephone J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus'Mathematics, The George Washington University A. W. GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITH Director of U. S. Geological Survey O. H. TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey HENRY WIITE Member American Peace Com mission, and Recently U. S . Ambassador to France, Italy, etc. ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO CARRY out the purpose for which it was founded thirty-three years ago, the National Geo graphic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, are desired. For material that the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage, and be addressed: Editor, National Geographic Magazine, 16th and M Streets, Washington, D. C. Important contributions to geographic science are constantly being made through expeditions financed by funds set aside from the Society's income. For example, immediately after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a Na tional Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenomenon. So im portant was the completion of this work considered that four expeditions have followed and the extraor dinary scientific data resultant given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was dis- covered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures, evidently formed by nature as a huge safety-valve for erupting Katmai. By proclamation of the President of the United States, this area has been created a National Monument. The Society organized and sup ported a large party, which made a three-year study of Alaskan glacial fields, the most remarkable in ex istence. At an expense of over $50,000 it has sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. The discoveries of these expeditions form a large share of the world's knowl edge of a civilization which was waning when Pizarro first set foot in. Peru. Trained geologists were sent to Mt. Pelee, La Soufriere, and Messina following the eruptions and'earthquakes. The Society also had the honor of subscribing a substantial sum to the historic expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole April 6, 1909. Not long ago the Society granted $20,000 to the Federal Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was in sufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American peo ple and incorporated into a National Park. Copyright, 1921, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918.