National Geographic : 1921 Jul
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPIIlC MAGAZINE Photograph b FISHING CRAFT AT GLOUCEST At the beginning of the Revolutionary Wa second only to Marblehead as a fishing port. Tl a blow during that period from which it did no the Civil War. ployed at sea on board a ship are called "sailors" by landsmen, but seamen narrow the embrace of the term down to those who can steer, equip, repair, and handle the canvas of a sailing craft under sea conditions. All others are deck-hands and seamen. Sailors of the orthodox class even go a step further and designate all the per sonnel of a steamer as "steamboat-men." They consider the terms "seamen" and "sailor" to be sacred to ships driven by wind and canvas. It has been my privilege to sail and steam the oceans in many kinds of craft, ranging from the ro mantic full - rigged clipper ship to the oil burning greyhounds of twenty-knot speed, and from the grace ful, sea-kindly Grand Bank fishing schooner to the sturdy steam trawler of North Sea type; but in all my voyaging I am in clined to the belief that the only real "sailors" we have to day, in this mechan ical age, are to be found in the Bank fishermen of North America's At 1antic coasts. The sailors I refer to are the crews of the beautiful fishing schooners that sail out of the fishing ports of Newfound land, the Mnaritime Provinces of Canada, and the New England States of America; and the ports which claim most of them are Lunenburg, in y Herbert B. Turner Nova Scotia, and Gloucester and Bos ton, in Massachusetts. ar, Gloucester was These deep-sea fish ie industry suffered it fully revive until ermen are a distinct ive type peculiar to the North American Atlantic coast. Racially they are from the sturdy pioneer breeds of Highland Scotch, Hanoverian German, \Vest Country English, and West Irish which settled in Newfoundland, eastern Canada, Maine, and Massachusetts when America was young. Landing on the shores of the new land, they made their homes above tide-water and farmed, cut timber, and fished. To reach their markets they had to use the sea, and they built their own vessels to transport their goods. The succeeding generations of men were, therefore, farmers, fishermen, wood workers, and sailors.