National Geographic : 1923 Dec
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President IIHENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOIN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President O. P. AUSTIN, Secretary JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer GEO. W. IIUTCIIISON, Associate Secretary BOYD TAYLOR, Assistant Treasurer EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIHE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR WILLIAM J. SIIOWALTEI Assistant Editor CIARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD In Charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture. C. IART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S . Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-game Photographer E. LESTER JONES Director U. S. Coast and Geo detic Survey JOIIN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor R RALPH A. GRAVES FRA Assistant Editor J. R . HILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service BOARD OF TRUSTEES WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Chief Justice of the United States GRANT SQUIRES Military Intelligence Divi ion, General Staff, New York C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S . Navy, For merly Supt. U. S. Naval Ob servatory FREDERICK V. COVILI,E Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN Managing Editor The Evening Star T. L. MACDONALD M.D., F.A.C.S. S. N. D. NORTII Formerly Director U. S. Bureau of Census NKLIN L. FISHER Chief of Illustrations Division ALEXANDER GRAIIAM BELL Inventor of the telephone Died August 2, 1922 J. HIOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, Tie George Washington University A. WV. GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITI Director U. S . Geological Survey O. II . TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey HENRY WHIIITE Member American Peace Com mission, Formerly U. S. Am bassador to France, Italy, etc. JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo- STEPHEN T. MATHER graphic Magazine Director National Park Service ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO carry out the purposes for which it was founded thirty-five years ago, the Na tional Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts are invested in the Magazine itself or ex pended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For material which the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenom enon. Four expeditions have followed and the extra ordinary scientific data resultant given to the worll. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thou sand Smokes," a vast ar'-ea of steaming, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's discoveries this area has been created a National Monument by proc lanmation of the President of the United States. AT an expense of over $50o,co The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of sub scribing a substantial sum to the expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000. and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people. THE Society is conducting extensive explora tions and excavations in northwestern New Mexico, which was one of tlie most densely populated areas in North America before Columbus came. a region where prehistoric peoples lived in vast com rnminal dwellings and whose customs, ceremonies, and name have been engulfed in an oblivion. THE Society also is maintaining expeditions in the unknown area adjacent to the San Juan River in southeastern Utah, and in Yunnan, Kweichow, and Kansu, China-all regions virgin to scientific study. Copyright, 1923, by National Geographic Society. Washington, D. C., in the United States and Great Britain. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July I, 1918.