National Geographic : 1925 Dec
THE TAURI] and successors. He sought beef, with little regard for milk. Then came the Hewers, the Jeffries, Knight of Downton Castle, the Greens, the Tudges, Benjamin Rogers, John Price of Court House, Lord Berwick, Taylor, the Edwards, Stephen Robinson, Aaron Rogers, Thomas Carwardine, the Turners, and a galaxy of the ablest men who ever gave time, money, and talent to live stock improvement. The story of the Hereford in America may be divided into two periods: the first and least important, their early introduction into the Central and Eastern States, and, secondly, their advent upon the Western ranges. It has been generally believed that Messrs. Goff & Miller, who made the initial importation of Teeswater Shorthorns into Virginia in 1786, brought in also at least one bull of Hereford blood. It is known that the importation in cluded a few Longhorns. While the Shorthorn blood predominated in the first of these Virginia cattle taken into Kentucky, a celebrated stock bull in the early days of cattle breeding in the blue grass coun try, belonging to the so-called Patton (Goff & Miller) stock, known as Mars, was described as "a deep red with a white face," and there can be little doubt that he was of Hereford shire origin, and his blood was widely used in laying the foundations of Kentucky and Ohio cattle-breeding operations. In 1825 Hereford blood came into New England, Admiral Coffin, of the English Navy (born in Boston), presenting a pair to the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. This bull lived to the age of 19 years and left a valuable progeny, of which Mr. Sanford Howard, who was interested in cattle breeding in Maine and Massachusetts, writes: "I saw many of the bull's progeny in the vicinity where he was first kept, and owned some of them. They made prodigiously pow erful and active draft cattle; there was a majesty in their gait and an elasticity and quickness of movement which I never saw equaled and which, together with their beauti ful mahogany color and strong constitutions, made them decided favorites with the Yankee teamsters." The popularity of the get of this bull led to an important importation by Mr. Howard, for account of the Messrs. Vaughan, into the State of Maine in 1830. In the hands of Messrs. Burleigh & Bodwell the descendants of this importation acquired great reputation throughout New England. In 1840 Hon. Erastus Corning, of New York, imported 22 head from Herefordshire. These fell into the hands of William Henry Sotham, who undertook to popularize the breed in the West, but with no particular suc cess. He sold a good lot, however, to Hon. John Merryman, of Cockeysville, Maryland, who later became one of the best-known American breeders of his time. In 1846 Phineas Pendleton, a sea captain of Searsport, Maine, brought over a pair of Hereford calves that constituted the founda- NE WORLD 669 tion of the famous Underwood herds in Maine. A few subsequent importations were made into Massachusetts, and in 1852 two Herefordshire farmers, emigrating to north ern Ohio, brought the first of the blood direct from the old country into that State. They made another importation in 1860, and during that same year Hon. Frederick William Stone, a Warwickshire man who had immigrated to Ontario, made an importation into Canada. Descendants of these Ohio and Canadian cattle subsequently supplied the material for the first great experiments with the blood of the Here ford in the West. Up to 1870 it may be said that, outside of New England, where oxen were in regular use at the yoke, the Hereford had not made any particular headway against the Shorthorn, which by that date was a prime favorite in American cattle-breeding operations all the way from Massachusetts Bay to the Missouri River. But a great day for the Hereford was dawning. In southern Texas, soon after the close of the Civil War, Captain Richard King and his friend, Captain Mifflin Kennedy, were unwit tingly preparing the way for the great West ern cattle-grazing industry. These men, beginning with Spanish Long horns, assembled large herds near the Mexican Gulf coast, obtaining control of vast tracts of grass for that purpose. From this nucleus cattle ranching extended north and west until by the middle seventies it had grown to large proportions. The Kentucky and Missouri Shorthorn herds had been drawn upon for improving the Long horns, so that when the first Herefords were taken to Colorado and northern Texas for ex perimental purposes the foundation had al ready been provided. As early as 1876 favorable reports as to the results of the use of white-faced bulls on the range began to come in. T. L. Miller, a Chi cago business man owning a farm at Beecher, Illinois, had already espoused the Hereford cause and, sensing the possibilities involved in the Western trade, began an enthusiastic cam paign to promote the adoption of Hereford bulls throughout the entire range country. The hard winter of 1880-81 clinched the claims of the white-faces as the one breed best capable of facing grief, and from that day to this the ascendancy of the breed on the Western ranges has been maintained. To meet the Western demand, great num bers of the best animals to be found in Here fordshire were imported during the eighties. In fact, the very flower of the breed in its native land was practically transferred to In diana, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri pastures. Wealthy men, interested in good cattle, dipped deeply into their bank balances to induce the old-country breeders to part with their very best, and it was not many years before a dis tinct improvement over the old Herefordshire type became apparent. Special recognition in this connection should be made to such pioneer importers and breed ers as Gudgell & Simpson, of Missouri; C. M .