National Geographic : 1926 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President HENRY WHITE, Vice-President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President O. P . AUSTIN, Secretary JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer GEO. W. IUTCHISON, Associate Secretary FR1) M. BERTHRONG, Assistant Treasurer EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER RALPH A. GRAVES FRANKLIN L. FISHER Assistant Editor Assistant Editor Chief of Illustrations Division J. R. IIILDEBRAND, Chief of School Service CHARLES J. BELL President American Security and Trust Company JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD In charge of Agricultural Ex plorations, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S. Con gress, Faunal Naturalist, and Wild-game Photographer E. LESTER JONES Director U. S. Coast and Geo detic Survey BOARD OF TRUSTEES WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Chief Justice of the United States GRANT SQUIRES Military Intelligence Division, General Staff, New York C. M . CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, For merly Supt. U. S . Naval Ob servatory J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture RUDOLPH KAUFFMANN Managing Editor The Evening Star JOHN FOOTE, M. D. Professor of Pediatrics, George town University CHARLES G. DAWES Vice-President of the United States JOHN BARTON PAYNE Chairman American Red Cross A. W. GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITH Director U. S. Geological Survey O. H. TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey HENRY WHITE Member American Peace Com mission, Formerly U. S. Am bassador to France, Italy, etc. JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo- STEPHEN T. MATHER graphic Magazine Director National Park Service ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO carry out the purposes for which it was founded thirty-eight years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All re ceipts are invested in the Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For material which the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenom enon. Four expeditions have followed and the ex traordinary scientific data resulting given tothe world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-"The Valley of Ten Thou sand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's discoveries this area has been created a National Monument by proc lamation of the President of the United States. AT an expense of over $50,000 The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of sub scribing a substantial sum to the expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people. THE Society is conducting extensive explora tions and excavations in northwestern New Mexico, which was one of the most densely populated areas in North America before Columbus came, a region where prehistoric peoples lived in vast com munal dwellings and whose customs, ceremonies, and name have been engulfed in an oblivion. THE Society also is maintaining expeditions in the unknown area adjacent to the San Juan River in southeastern Utah, and in Yunnan, Kweichow, and Kansu, China-all regions virgin to scientific study. Copyright, 1926, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., in the United States and Great Britain. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918.