National Geographic : 2004 Jun
1935 As workmen graded the Mall, a statue of Joseph Henry, the Smithsonian's first secretary, faced the Castle-the only Smithsonian building until 1881 (facing page, bottom; No. 1 on tear-out map). Before 1935 the Mall had been balkanized as some occu pants did their own landscaping; the Castle once had a pen for a collection of animals. Henry lived in the Castle from 1855 to 1878. 1946 The city's explosive wartime growth brought traffic snarls-and a radical proposal: twin expressways and underpasses for north-south streets (along with an inner city beltway). The failed plan would have turned the Mall into a median strip. In 2003 a controversial proposal for an underground visitors center and entrance tunnel at the Washington Monument was also scrapped. III CAPITOL HILL EXPRESSWAY EIZ~iia :i ,'