National Geographic : 2004 Oct
Tb *a, A"I . r (iP ilc Y IRC Byzantium. - (Istanbul) ANA1 *' ' * ** TURKEY OLIA T fTi ~~,Lr a pi it 400 B.C . Trade route NZI IRON CRETE IRAN hethoenicia6s '. exported their owi. w materials and craftW id transported goods oduced in other Med erranean regions. IRAQ ASIA Babylon * Phoenician-era settlement; present-day names in parentheses 0mi 200 Okm 200 539 B.C. Persian Emperor Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, and Phoenicia became a prov ince in his vast empire. 332 B.C. Alexander the Great crushed Tyre, the only Phoenician city to offer serious resis tance to his con quest of Persia. Phoenician city of Tyre Sidonian harbor L 264 B.C. The First Punic War began as Car thage and Rome fought for control of Sicily. A second war started in 218 B.c. in Italy. 140 B.C. Rome burned Carthage, ending the Third Punic War and annihilat ing the last major center of Phoeni cian culture. - Alexander's causeway was built in 332 B.C . See art pages 44-5 Egyptian harbor North Scale varies in this perspective; Phoenician city is two-thirds of a mile from mainland. StKUlfe ,/ 0km GOLDMASK:FRANSKRAUX, LOUVRE:GIASS AMULET:BAR DO MUSEUM,TUNISIA;CLAY S FACE:MUSEODECADIZ,SPAIN ARTBYRICHARDSCHLECHT NATIONALGEOGRAPHICMAPS With mountains to their backs and the sea spreading before them, the Phoenicians left a line of settlements along what is now the coast of Lebanon, Syria, and Israel (inset, above). Tyre, once the most powerful of their cities, possessed features that Phoenician colonists sought again and again when settling on foreign shores: a defensible island, a protected anchorage, and easy access to agricultural fields on the mainland (above). Sidon, another great port, pro vided evidence of a revolutionary Phoenician development: the world's earliest alphabet. In the sixth century B.C. a king named Tabnit obtained an Egyptian sarcophagus (left) and added an inscription in Phoenician (far left) so he could use it himself. WHO WERE THE PHOENICIANS? 39 LIBYA WARTRIREME Memphis, lEGYPT +"