National Geographic : 2007 Apr
couple of miles south. The Bronx became a music magnet for Puerto Ricans, Jamaicans, Dominicans, and black Americans from the sur rounding areas. Fab 5 Freddy, Kurtis Blow, and Melle Mel were only a few of the pioneers. Grand Wizard Theodore, Kool DJ AJ, the Cold Crush Brothers, Spoony Gee, and the Rock Steady Crew of B-boys showed up to "battle" dance, trade quips and rhymes, check out each other's records and equipment-not knowing as they strolled through the doors of the commu nity center near Bambaataa's mother's apartment that they were writing musical history. Among them was an MC named Lovebug Starski, who was said to utter the phrase "hip-hop" between breaks to keep time. This is how it worked: One guy, the DJ, played records on two turntables. One guy-or girl served as master of ceremonies, or MC. The DJs learned to move the record back and forth un der the needle to create a "scratch," or to drop the needle on the record where the beat was the hottest, playing "the break" over and over to keep the folks dancing. The MCs "rapped" over the music to keep the party going. One MC sought to outchat the other. Dance styles were created -"locking" and "popping" and "breaking." Graffiti artists spread the word of the "I" because the music was all about identity: I am the best. I spread the most love in the Bronx, in Harlem, in Queens. The focus initially was not on the MCs, but on the dancers, or B-boys. Commer cial radio ignored it. DJs sold mix tapes out of the back of station wagons. "Rapper's Delight" by the Sugarhill Gang-the song I first heard at that face-slapping party in Harlem-broke the music onto radio in 1979. That is the short history. The long history is that spoken-word music made its way here on slave ships from West Africa centuries ago: Ethnomusicologists trace hip-hop's roots to the dance, drum, and song of West African griots, or storytellers, its pairing of word and music the manifestation of the painful jour ney of slaves who survived the middle passage. The ring shouts, field hollers, and spirituals of early slaves drew on common elements ofAfrican music, such as call and response and improvisa tion. "Speech-song has been part of black culture for a long, long time," says Samuel A. Floyd, director of the Center for Black Music Research at Columbia College in Chicago. The "dozens," 106 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC . APRIL 2007 You can trace hip-hop's roots to the dance, drum, and song of West African griots. Spoken word music made its way here on slave ships centuries ago. "toasts," and "signifying" of black Americans verbal dueling, rhyming, self-deprecating tales, and stories of blacks outsmarting whites-were defensive, empowering strategies. You can point to jazz musicians such as Oscar Brown, Jr., Edgar "Eddie" Jefferson, and Louis Armstrong, and blues greats such as John Lee Hooker, and easily find the foreshadowing of rap music in the verbal play of their work. Black performers such as poet Nikki Giovanni and Gil Scott-Heron, a pianist and vocalist who put spoken political lyrics to music (most famously in "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised"), elevated spoken word to a new level. But the artist whose work arguably laid the groundwork for rap as we know it was Amiri Baraka, a beat poet out of Allen Ginsberg's Greenwich Village scene. In the late 1950s and '60s, Baraka performed with shrieks, howls, cries, stomps, verse floating ahead of or behind the rhythm, sometimes in staccato syncopation. It was performance art, delivered in a dashiki and Afro, in step with the anger of a bold and some times frightening nationalistic black movement, and it inspired what might be considered the first rap group, the Last Poets.