National Geographic : 2007 Sep
ZB EKISTAN Pakistan's Great Divide The rise and ruin of empires Indus, Aryan, Persian, Mogul, British-are written in the soil of Pakistan, which was founded as a Muslim homeland in 1947 with the partition of India. Pakistan's borders encompass five major ethnic groups and two distinct geographies. A "fault line" down the middle .of the country mirrors a reli gious divide as well: Where the mountains meet the low lands, the fierce fundamental ism of the Afghan frontier confronts the moderate Islam of the Indian subcontinent. CHINA Boundary claimed - by Pakistan 44s AFGHANISTAN Line of cntrol Khyber Pass 3,500 ft 1.,067 m FEDERALLY ADMINISTERED TRIBAL AREAS Durand Line (present-day boundary) S INDIA ) teofF nuclear BANGL r~ . I kana SI V V Nuclear reactor Omi 100 I ,II I 0km 100 RELIEFBYTIBORG. TOTH NGMMAPS tars of Turmoil 1971 Pakistan loses more than half its popula tion when East Pakistan (renamed Bangladesh) declares its inde pendence, trigger ing a war between its ally, India, and Pakistan. 1979 After the U.S .S .R . invades Afghanistan, the U.S . and Pakistan join to support an insurgency of Afghan and Pakistani jihadists. Pakistan's leader, General Zia-ul Haq, pushes an Islamic fundamen talist agenda. 1998 Directed by scientist A. Q . Khan, Pakistan conducts several nuclear tests to counter India's arsenal. Secretly, Khan is selling nuclear hardware and know-how to Iran, Libya, and North Korea. 11 2007 Prot resident sparked he Hervez iviusnarn who seized power in 1999, drops support of the Taliban in Afghanistan and allies with the U.S. in a "war on terror." Musnarrat sI ers and oppi groups callir for a return democratic IRAN ilia, a ie British gains its ndence and tioned into id Pakistan, n for Mus the chaotic ath,uptoa people die.