National Geographic : 1929 Dec
THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE pronounced like O in Sore. Recently the Norwegians have in many instances re placed their Aa with the same letter. The Danish-Norwegian Aa must not be con fused with the Dutch-German or Finnish Aa, equivalent to the English A in Father. NEW STATES BANISHED OLD NAMES AFTER THE WORLD WAR After the World War the official Ger man, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian lan guages were banished from the new-born States of Central Europe, with the result that Estonian, Lettish, Lithuanian, Polish, Czechoslovak, and Serbo-Croatian came into their own as official languages. Fortunately, these nations, with the ex ception of the Serb (Jugoslavia), use the Latin script, but because of the numerous diacritical marks and unusual combination of consonants, pronunciation of the new names at first sight appears to be far from easy. The problem is not so great as it would seem. In Latvia, Lithuania, Czecho slovakia, and Jugoslavia the letter S ap pears frequently. This represents the Eng lish Sh; but in Hungary the unaccented S, in Rumania S, and in Poland S or Sz, also represent this sound. On the other hand, the Hungarian Sz is like sharp S. The letter C in all these countries except Rumania always is pronounced Ts, but in Hungary Cz and in Rumania T also have the same value. The English Ch in Lithuania, Latvia, Czechoslovakia, and Jugoslavia is repre sented by C; but in Poland Cz, in Hun gary Cs, and in Rumania C (before E and I) are the equivalents of this sound. The soft Zh (French J) is rendered by %in Lithuania, Latvia. Czechoslovakia. and Jugoslavia, and in addition the Lithu- anian Z, the Polish 2 and Rz, the Hun garian Zs, and the Rumanian J have the same value. The letter J in almost all cases represents the English Y, with notable exceptions in France and Rumania. The English J is represented in Poland by Dz, in Czecho slovakia by Dz, in Hungary by Gy, and in Rumania by G (before E or I). Poland presents a greater variety of diacritical marks than any other country, but the difficulties of pronouncing that country's place names are minimized by recalling that L is the equivalent of the Ll in All, although frequently pronounced like the English W. The 0 is pronounced nearly like Oo in Boot, and the W like the English V, or F at the end of a word. Thus, Sokotlw is pronounced Sokowoof. The Czechoslovak R is most nearly rep resented phonetically by Rzh; thus Pierov is pronounced Przherov. In pronouncing Lettish, Czech, Fin nish, Hungarian, and Estonian geographic names the stress is always on the first syl lable and in Polish on the next to the last syllable. A NETWORK OF AIRPLANE LINES COVERS EUROPE The inset map showing airplane lines now operated in Europe will prove of interest to the traveler and to the student of aviation. Many of these lines are not operated in winter and most of them are maintained with the aid of government subsidies. The lines, of course, are not permanently fixed, but the map gives the user a comprehensive idea of the places to which he may travel by air. Many of the lines are operated not daily, but once or twice a week. Additional copies of the New Map of Europe and the Near East may be obtained from the headquartersof the National GeographicSociety, in Washington, at $i each for the paper edition (folded), $1.50 for the linen edition, mailed post paid in a tube. . The Index, listing more than 8,000 names appearing on the map, as well as many hundred Anglicized equivalents (familiar place-name forms), is available separatelyat 50 cents the copy.