National Geographic : 2018 Dec
DETAIL ACTUAL SIZE HEBREW GREEK LATIN Hebrew is read right to left. Multiple quires A variety of pigments, as well as gold leaf, were used to illustrate and illuminate text. Sheets were sewn together, end to end. Single quire Leather stay Stitching 24 ft 46 24 533927 8 5 555 11 12 17 18 4 1 1 21 21 5 7 9 16 18 books HISTORY PENTATEUCH WISDOM Apocryphal book GOSPELS ACTS EPISTLES REVELATION PROPHETS Torah (The Law) Nevi’im (Prophets) Ketuvim (Writings) HEBREW BIBLE EASTERN ORTHODOX ROMAN CATHOLIC PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT BOOKS NEW TESTAMENT BOOKS APOCRYPHAL BOOKS Called Poetic Books by the Eastern Orthodox Poetry, wisdom, and historical records Historical events recorded by Israelite prophets The Bible’s first five books Ancient Israelite history Gospel means “good news.” Letters by Apostles Paul, John, and others Apocalyptic vision Growth of the early church God’s messages told by the prophets ROMAN CATHOLICISM EASTERN ORTHODOXY ROMAN CATHOLICISM CHRISTIANITY JUDAISM JUDAISM RELIGION OF ANCIENT ISRAEL PROTESTANTISM *ca 6 B.C. Jesus of Nazareth is born. Martin Luther writes his 95 Theses. 1455 Gutenberg Bible 1611 King James Bible CA 200—100 B.C. The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, is completed. 382St. Jerome begins Latin Vulgate translation. Moses and the Ten Commandments Era of writing Point of divergence Translation or religious text CA 363 393 1054 CA A.D. 50 1517 CA 200 Muratorian canon includes 22 of the New Testament books. 1000 B.C. A.D. 500 500 1000 1500 2000 B.C. A.D. B.C. A.D. SCROLL CODEX PRINTED BOOK CONSTRUCTING THE CANONS The “divine library” is the work of more than 35 authors spanning at least a millennium. Determining which writings should be included in the official canon of holy Scripture took hundreds of years. MANUSCRIPT EVOLUTION For thousands of years sacred Scripture was laboriously copied character by character. Tradition and location influenced what materials were used. The Council of Laodicea (in modern Turkey) rules that only texts confirmed to be Scripture can be used in worship. The Council of Hippo (in modern Algeria) issues a list of the 27 books of the New Testament—in use today—as canon. Reformers object to some Catholic doctrine and plead for changes in practice, ritual, and theology. The rift between the eastern patriarch and western pope reaches a climax, leading to the Great Schism in 1054. Claiming hidden knowledge of the divine, the “Gnostics” write additional books under the names of Jesus’ Apostles. Medieval scribes were often monks who could spend weeks, months, or years working by hand on a single manuscript. Pottery jars found in caves near the Dead Sea may have kept several of the ancient scrolls intact for centuries. OLD TESTAMENT Hebrew Scriptures are written. Agreement on authoritative books takes several more centuries. NEW TESTAMENT Accounts of Jesus’ life and teachings and records of followers are ascribed to his Apostles and their associates. Hebrew Scriptures were copied onto scrolls of animal- skin parchment or, occasionally, papyrus. Synagogues today continue to use handwritten scrolls. Great Isaiah Scroll Dead Sea Scrolls Second century b.c. Gospels and Acts Codex Chester Beatty Papyri Third century a.d . Codex Amiatinus Early eighth century Later codices Parchment grew more popular in the fourth century. Manuscripts tended to be larger, longer, and, starting in the fifth century, ornamented. Early codices Early Christian texts were written mostly on papyrus and bound into single- or multi- quire codices, often with one column of text per page. THE BIBLE’S STORY SCRIPTURE SHARED The Bible took shape—in form and word—over centuries of study, debate, technological progress, and worship. From handwriting on papyrus and parchment to words printed by mechanical press, these sacred texts have been passed on in many formats. Jews and Christians share many sacred writings, but Jews don’t regard the New Testament as Scripture. Neither Jews nor Protestants recog- nize the books of the Apocrypha as Scripture. These texts are considered part of the Old Testament by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, where they’re referred to as deuterocanonical books. The Apostles decree at the Jerusalem Council that obeying Jewish ceremonial law isn’t essential for non-Jewish followers of Jesus. * THE SYSTEM OF DATING USING A.D.—ANNO DOMINI, OR “IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD”— WAS DEVISED IN THE SIXTH CENTURY AND ESTABLISHED THE BIRTH OF JESUS AS THE PIVOT POINT OF HISTORY. MORE RECENT SCHOLARSHIP SUGGESTS THAT JESUS WAS BORN A FEW YEARS EARLIER. ALAMY STOCK PH OTO CHESTER BEATTY LIBRARY BIBLIOTECA MEDICEA LAURENZIANA DIGITAL REPOSITORY Protestants, Roman Catholics, and the Eastern Orthodox accept the same New Testament canon. Other Orthodox sects may use a slightly different order or selection of books. The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible are rearranged in Christian Old Testaments.