National Geographic : 2017 Aug
Percentage of children under five who are stunted Number of people per acre openly defecating 25 50 10 20 30 40 50 60% Haiti Brazil Dominican Republic Ghana Nigeria Nepal Eritrea 100 million 10 million 1 million Number of people openly defecating Sao Tome and Principe Timor-Leste Togo India Indonesia Pakistan Ethiopia Burundi SOUTH AMERICA ASIA 12345810 6 9 7 NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA AUSTRALIA INDIA VIETNAM HAITI More than 40 25 to 39.9 10 to 24.9 1to9.9 Less than 1 No data Percentage of population that defecates in the open Countries with highest rates 1. Eritrea 2. South Sudan 3. Niger 4. Chad 5. Burkina Faso 6. Sao Tome and Principe 7. Solomon Islands 8. Benin 9. Togo 10. Namibia JASON TREAT AND MATTHEW W. CHWASTYK, NGM STAFF; KELSEY NOWAKOWSKI SOURCES: WHO/UNICEF JOINT MONITORING PROGRAMME FOR WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION; SANGITA VYAS, RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR COMPASSIONATE ECONOMICS India Vietnam Change in open-defecation rates 100% 50 0 1990 2015 1990 2015 44% 39% 75% 0.7% The percentage of people defecating in the open air declined worldwide from 1990 to 2015, with the most dramatic reductions in some of the least developed countries. Yet nearly 950 million people still practice this public health hazard—a challenge augmented by population growth. Cleaning Up an Unsanitary World MAKING GAINS Vietnam has nearly eradi- cated open defecation. UN statistics based on toilet construction show India has made progress too—but some experts dispute the extent, arguing in part that many of the latrines that have been built go unused. SANITATION AND STUNTING In many developing countries, the prevalence of open defecation has a terrible effect on children: It exposes them to illnesses that cause malnutri- tion and stunt their growth. About 569 million people in India defecate in the open.