National Geographic : 2016 Oct
0mi 200 0km 200 <0.5% 1.2% 12.9% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% 4.2% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% 0.7% 0.7% 1.5% 2.8% 6.7% 4.6% 6% 1.6% 7% 1% 2.2% <0.5% 3% 29% 13.2% Syria 29% Afghanistan 14.8% Iraq 9.9% Eritrea 3.6% Pakistan 3.7% Other 39% Asylum applications to the EU Non-European country of origin 1,321,600 225,150 2008 2015 2015 0 European Unity, 2015 Refugee Population European Union member Schengen border-free area* (free movement of people between countries) Major Routes to Europe, 2015 Sea Border fence Growing year over year, the refugee population within the European Union and Schengen regions swelled to more than 2.5 million by the end of 2015. Less usage More usage Land 13% All refugees within EU and Schengen countries Country’s portion *Includes Iceland (not shown) The U.K. voted to leave the European Union on June 23, 2016. El Giza Hamburg Aleppo Ar Raqqah Homs Ceuta (SPAIN) Milan Edirne Mosul Istanbul Nuremberg Munich Siracusa Catanzaro Tukrah Beida Nis Agrigento Melilla (SPAIN) Genoa Damascus Ljubljana Cairo Tunis Rome Vilnius Madrid Ankara Belgrade Jerusalem Helsinki Paris Tripoli Lisbon Bratislava Nicosia Sarajevo Amman Tallinn Bern Brussels Prague Dresden Leipzig Skopje London Beirut Berlin Zagreb Bucharest Algiers Riga Sofia Oslo Frankfurt Lyon Naples İzmir Tirana Podgorica Athens Budap est Marseille Cádiz Málaga Almería Cartagena Cagliari Salerno Trapani Reggio di Calabria Calais Kalamata Annaba Tobruk Alexandria Sousse Gabes Zuwarah CopenhagenAlKhums Warsaw BizerteViennaDublinAmsterdam Rotenburg Bebra Stockholm Thessaloniki WEST BANK NORTHERN CYPRUS GAZA STRIP BalearicI sland s Corsica Sardinia Sicily Crete Rhodes Lesbos Chios ANATOLIA SAHARA M editerran e a n Sea ATLANTIC OCEAN Black Sea Adriatic Sea Ionian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Alboran Sea North Sea Caspian Sea AegeanSeaBalticSea English Chan nel Strait ofGibraltar GERMANY POLAND CZECHIA (CZECH REP.) AUSTRIA FRANCE BELGIUM NETHERLANDS UNITED KINGDOM DENMARK LITHUANIA ROMANIA HUNGARY SLOVAKIA BULGARIA GREECE ITALY (ITALY) (FRANCE) SPAIN PORTUGAL CYPRUS IRELAND (ÉIRE) LATVIA SWEDEN ESTONIA MALTA CROA TI A FINLAND MONACO LUXEMBOUR G SLOVENIA SWITZERLAND SAN MARINO BELARUS UKRAINE ANDORRA TURKEY SYRIA IRAQ GEORGIA JORDAN ISRAEL LEBANON MOROCCO ALGERIA TUNISIA LIBYA EGYPT SAUDI ARABIA RUSSIA RUSSIA NORWAY VATICAN CITY BOSN. & HERZG. SERBIA MONTENEGRO ALBANIA KOSOVO MACEDONIA LIECH. MOLDOVA KAZAKHSTAN ARMENIA IRAN TURKISH ARRANGEMENT In March 2016 the EU agreed to give Turkey six billion euros in aid and also to ease travel restrictions on Turkish citizens—if Turkey would take back refugees who had crossed into Greece. HAZARDING THE SEAS Many seeking passage to Europe risk crossings in overcrowded, unseaworthy boats. In 2015, as 850,000 refugees reached Greece and another 150,000 reached Italy, 3,770 died in attempts. RESTRICTING BORDERS Retreating from the openness that is a keystone of the Schengen and EU treaties, some countries built fences or set up border checks. People on the move quickly rerouted to circumvent the closures, which were often shared via social media. TRAVERSING RUSSIA Some refugees obtained Russian visas and crossed into Norway and Finland in attempts to enter Europe via northern borders. MATTHEW W. CHWASTYK AND MONICA SERRANO, NGM STAFF SOURCES: UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES; UNITED NATIONS POPULATION DIVISION; INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION; MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE; EUROSTAT; FRONTEX DRAMATIC INCREASE Conflict in Afghanistan and the Middle East has led to a huge increase in requests for asylum in the EU. Germany and Sweden have been particularly receptive. The 2015 figure doesn’t include hundreds of thousands of refugees waiting to apply for asylum.