National Geographic : 2014 Jul
story name here 39 LIFE UNDER THE ICE Only some 60 million years old, Europa’s brittle surface appears to be in constant flux. Energy-rich compounds there could reach the ocean as pieces of the crust slide under each other. Plumes and deep fissures may provide other routes into the liquid world beneath. JUPITER’S CRUCIAL ROLE The tidal push and pull of Jupiter and several of its other moons constantly flexes Europa, generating heat that keeps the water under the ice liquid. Charged particles in Jupiter’s magnetic field bom- bard the surface, converting sulfur and other elements into energy-rich compounds.