National Geographic : 2014 Mar
NEXT Meningococcal Human papillomavirus DEATH-RATE REDUCTION* VACCINE Hepatitis B Smallpox Polio Rotavirus** Pneumococcal Influenza Hemophilus influenzae b MMR Chicken pox Hepatitis A 1950 1940 1930 1920 1914 1960 1970 1980 1990 2010 2014 2000 Measles Mumps Rubella DTaP/Tdap*** 100 0% Whooping cough (pertussis) Diphtheria Tetanus Introduced VACCINE KEY Combined Updated Too new for assessment Data not available Graphic: Lawson parker, nGM staff. source: cDc photo: MetLife archives. art: Mesa schuMacher Sticking Points since edward Jenner dosed an eight-year-old boy with cowpox from a milkmaid’s hand in 1796 to prevent him from catching smallpox, immunizations have had a substantial success record. they are credited with reducing diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella incidences in the u.s. by 99 percent. Later incarnations of smallpox vaccines eventually led to that disease’s global eradication in 1979. according to re- searchers, immunization ranks with clean water, nutrition, and sanitation in health necessities. school entry require- ments and pediatric health care subsidies in the u.s . help ensure children get every vac- cine. adults, a significant source of children’s infections, aren’t as well inoculated. public and health care–provider education is needed to get adult numbers up, says the immuni- zation action coalition’s L. J. tan. “vaccines don’t give them- selves.” —Johnna Rizzo NEXT about 3 percent of cheese sales are lost to retail errors, fraud, and theft—making it one of the world’s most stolen foods. *as of 2012; baseline years vary **hospitalizations ***reduction shown as average of three diseases new York, 1920s Recommended PediatRic immunizations in the u.s. several factors determine the development of a vac- cine: if the disease is deadly and how many and whom it affects. “children are a priority in most cultures,” says anne schuchat of the centers for Disease control and prevention.