National Geographic : 2011 Nov
A.D. 400 500 600 700 0mi 150 0km 150 Present-day boundaries and place-names shown 0° 10°E 50°N North Sea ATLANTIC OCEAN NETH. DENMARK GERMANY NORWAY IRELAND U.K. FRANCE BELGIUM LUX. Picts Jutes Britons Angles Scotti Saxons SCANDINAVIA Migration routes and raids, A.D. 400-600 How England Began ca 450 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes arrive in England following the end of Roman rule, ca 410. Early sixth century The legendary Roman-British leader King Arthur is said to have lived in this era. Seventh century Mercia develops into one of the three biggest king- doms in England. Mid-seventh century Anglo-Saxon royal treasure is buried in the hull of a ship at Sutton Hoo. ca 650-700 The Staffordshire Hoard, a cache of military hardware, is buried. PHOTOS LEFT TO RIGHT : TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM; METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART/ART RESOURCE, NY; ROBERT CLARK; TED SPIEGEL, CORBIS; ERICH LESSING, ART RESOURCE, NY KING ARTHUR DEPICTED IN AN EARLY 15TH CENTURY TAPESTRY FRAGMENT GOLD AND GARNET BUTTONS FROM THE STAFFORDSHIRE HOARD BRONZE HEAD OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR HADRIAN, SECOND CENTURY A.D. The Staffordshire treasure was created at a time of upheaval. After Roman rule ended, Germanic warriors helped the Britons beat back the Picts and Scotti (above). The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes then turned on their local allies and carved out kingdoms (right). As this fragmented land became a state under one king, literature flourished, coins were minted, and people adopted Christianity. In 1066 Norman invaders defeated Harold II, England's last Anglo-Saxon ruler.