National Geographic : 1898 Sep
ATLANTIC ESTUARINE TIDES left alone, would in a short while have devastated large areas. In some European countries it has been found necessary in order to produce certain results in reforestation to transport soil in baskets by the hands of men to form a new covering for the naked rock, so that vegetation may be reestablished. It is not probable that we shall ever be reduced to such extremities in this country, but we should resist all influences that have a tendency to produce such a condition. Incidentally the game will be protected and the scenery pre served or restored to its original beauty. This section is the natural home of the moose, elk, bear, deer, mountain goat, and mountain sheep, but during the past season scarcely any of the above were encountered and very little sign of their presence was observed. The deer are killed in large numbers by commercial hunters to bait bear traps. In one locality 120 bears were trapped in two seasons, and it is considered a conservative esti mate that for each bear secured 1,000 pounds of game meat is ordinarily used. The elk and the moose are nearly extermi nated, and the region which once attracted sportsmen from all portions of the country, and also from Europe, has almost com pletely lost its attraction as a hunting ground. [The foregoing article was presented at the Joint Session of the National Geographic Society and the A. A. A. S ., Boston, August 25, 1898.] ATLANTIC ESTUARINE TIDES* By MARK S. VW .JEFFERSON The tidal phenomena of a number of commercially important estuaries on the Atlantic coast suggest a simple geographic classi fication. There are two distinct tidal types, with corresponding types of geography. Both are united in the Delaware. Ascending the bay from the capes, a four-foot tide increases to six feet and falls off in speed from 23 miles to 11 miles per hour. Ascending the river, the range again diminishes from six feet to four feet, with a speed varying irregularly between 7 and 15 miles. The geo graphic types here are the bay, from the capes to Delaware City, and the river above. The combined type corresponds to the * Extract from Thesis in research course in Geography at Harvard University, under Prof. W. M . Davis. Read at the Joint Session of the National Geographic Society and the A. A. A. S., Boston, August 25, 1898.