National Geographic : 1889 Jul
212 YNational Geographic iMagazine. in the next three diagrams, figs. 16, 17, 18. Two adjacent syn clinal streams, EA and IIB, join a transverse master stream, C, but the svnclines are of different forms ; the surface axis of one, EA, stands at some altitude above baselevel until it nearly reaches the place of the transverse stream ; while the axis of the other, HB, descends near baselevel at a considerable distance from the transverse stream. As lateral valleys, E and D, are opened on the anticline between the synclines by a process similar to that already described, the divide separating them will shift towards the stream of fainter slope, that is, towards the syncline, EA, whose axis holds its hard beds above baselevel; and in time the upper part of the main stream will be withdrawn from this syn cline to follow an easier course by crossing to the other, as in fig. 17. If the elevation of the synolinal axis, AES, take the shape of a long flat arch, descending at the further end into a synclinal lake basin, S, whose outlet is along the arching axis, SA, then the mature arrangement of stream courses will lead the lake outlet away from the axis by some gap in the nearer ascending part of the arch where the controlling hard bed falls near to baselevel, as at F, fig. 18,* and will take it by some subsequent course, FD, across the lowland that is opened on the soft beds between the synclines, and carry it into the lower syncline, HB, at D where the hard beds descend below baselevel. The variety of adjustments following the general principle here indicated is infinite. Changes of greater or less value are thus introduced in the initial drainage areas, until, after attaining an attitude of equilibrium, further change is arrested, or if occur ring, is relatively insignificant. It should be noticed that the new stream courses thus chosen are not named by any of the terms now current to express the relation of stream and land his tory ; they are neither consequent, antecedent nor superimposed. The stream is truly still an original stream, although no longer young ; but its channel is not in all parts strictly consequent on the initial constructional form of the land that it drains. Streams thus re-arranged may therefore be named original streams of mature adjustment. It should be clearly recognized that the process of adjustment is a very slow one. unless measured in the extremely long units * This figure would be improved if a greater amount of wasting around the margin of the hard bed were indicated in comparison with the preceding figure.