National Geographic : 1890 May
National GeographicMfagazine. new system of consequent streams was born on the revealed sea bottom. Since then, time enough may have passed to allow the streams to sink their channels through the unconformable cover and strip it off, and thus superimpose themselves on the Triassic rocks below: we should therefore find them, in so far as they have not yet been re-adjusted, following inconsequent, discordant courses on the under formation. The existing overlap of the Cretaceous beds on the still buried Triassic portion of the old Schooley peneplain makes it evident that such an origin for the Watchung streams is possible; but it has not yet been indepen dently proved that the Cretaceous cover ever reached so far inland as to cross the Watchung ridges. Want of other explanation for the Watchung streams is not satisfactory evidence in favor of the explanation here suggested. There should be external evidence that the Triassic area has actually been submerged and buried after it was baselevelled to the Schooley peneplain and before it was uplifted to its present altitude; other streams as well as the ones thus far indicated, should bear signs of superimposition; and if adjustment of the superimposed courses has begun, it should be systematically car ried farthest near the largest streams. I shall not here state more than in brief form, the sufficient evidence that can be quoted in favor of the first and second requisites. Suffice it to say that the overlap of the Cretaceous beds (which contain practically no Triassic fragments) on the bevelled Triassic strata at Amboy and elsewhere indicates submergence after base levelling; and that the pebbles, sands and marls of the Cretaceous series point clearly to the Highlands as their source. The sub mergence must therefore have reached inland across the Triassic formation at least to the margin of the crystalline rocks. Some shore-line cutting must have been done at the margin of the Highlands during Cretaceous time, but the generally rolling sur face of the old peneplain leads me to ascribe its origin chiefly to subaerial wasting. Moreover, the North Branch of the Raritan, between Mendham and Peapack (* Fig. 1) and the Lockatong (L), a small branch of the Delaware on the West Hunterdon sandstone plateau, give striking indications of superimposition in the dis cordance of their courses with the weaker structural lines of their basins, so unlike the thoroughly adjusted course of the Musconet cong and its fellows, the Pohatcong, the Lopatcong, and others.