National Geographic : 1890 May
Rivers of Northern New Jersey. nels down to the new baselevel; such streams may be called "revived." Examples of revived streams are very common; nearly all the streams of the Highlands of New Jersey are of this kind ; all the streams of central and western Pennsylvania seem to belong in the same class. From these simple and common ex amples, we shall some day, when our knowledge of rivers is better developed, be able to form a complete series leading to what is generally understood as the typical antecedent river, which has outlived deformation as well as elevation without suffering either deflection or ponding. Large rivers of strong slope, well enclosed in steep-sided valleys, or in other words vig orous adolescent rivers have the best opportunity to persist across a belt of rising or writhing country,* because a great deformation would be required to throw them from their courses. Small streams or large ones of faint slope in an open low country are more easily deflected. From the typical antecedent river, the series may be continued by examples in which even the larger streams are less or more ponded or deflected by the deformation, until at the end of the series there is a complete extinction of the antecedent drainage and the establishment of an entirely original consequent drainage. The perfectly typical antecedent river, in the middle of this series, is certainly of rare occurrence, and is perhaps unknown. Consequent streams, whose course is taken on a relatively thin, unconformably overlying mass, for a time preserve their initial courses, even though they may be quite out of accord with the underlying structures on which they have descended. Such streams were first recognized by Marvine, and afterwards named "superimposed," "inherited" or "epigenetic" by various authors. A full collection of examples of this class should begin with streams that depart from true consequent courses only locally, where they have discovered a small portion of the underlying formation, like the Merrimack at Manchester and other water power towns of New Hampshire, where the stream has sunk upon rocky ledges beneath the surface drift and sands; or like the Mississippi and other rivers in Minnesota which have in places cut through the drift sheet to the underlying crystallines. The series would conclude with streams that have stripped off the cover on which they were consequent, and have thus become superimposed on the underlying formation in their whole length. * Stur's expression " Gebirgshub oder Gebirgschub" suggested to me the terms here employed.