National Geographic : 1890 Aug
Geographic Nomenclature. 281 Letters. Pronunciation and Remarks. Examples. p As in English. q should never be employed; qu is given as kw Kwangtung. r s I t I SAs in English. w J --------- .--------.... Sawakin. x J y is always a consonant, as in yard, Kikiiyu. and therefore should never be used as a terminal; i or e being substi tuted. Thus, not Mikinddny, but Mikindani. not Kwaly, but Kwale. z English z ------------------- -.. Zulu. Accents should not generally be used, Tongatabu, Galapagos, Pal but where there is a very decided awan, SarAwak. emphatic syllable or stress, which affects the sound of the word, it should be marked by an acute accent. FRENCH SYSTEM. RULES ADOPTED IN APRIL, 1886, BY THE SOCIETi DE GEOGRAPHIE AT PARIS, FOR THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES. The geographic names in countries in which the oman char acter is employed in writing (which includes the neo-Latin, Germanic, and Scandinavian languages) shall be written in the orthography of the country to which they belong. The following rules apply solely to geographic names in coun tries without a written language, and to geographic names in countries where another than the Roman character is employed in writing. Names of places for which the orthography, through long usage, has become consecrated shall, however, be excepted from the rules. Examples : La Mecque, Naples, Calcutta. The rules in detail are : 1. The vowels a, e, i, and o are pronounced as in French, Spanish, Italian, and German. The letter e shall never be mute. 2. The French sound of u shall be represented by u with a trema like the German it. 3. The French sound ou shall be represented by u, as in Ital ian, Spanish, and German.
1891 Mar 28