National Geographic : 1892 Mar 21
T'ie Yawning Crevasses. glacier varies much with the locality. From an elevated point such as V, from which the minor irregularities are not promi nent, the general smoothness seems broken over limited areas, like the surface of a still lake ruffled in places by puffs of wind. These are, of course, where the bed of the glacier presents some irregularity. Below them the sides of the crevasses are again pressed together, and the surface resumes its general smoothness. The increase in the width of crevasses during the summer was very noticeable. In the beginning of September we were unable to cross the northwestern tributary, although earlier in the season Professor Muir crossed it without much difficulty. The place where the crevasses were most marked was the im mediate neighborhood of the glacier's mouth. Here two sets of crevasses cutting each other obliquely divided the ice into great lozenge-shaped masses, which, under the influence of the sun, rain and winds, melted, in some cases into narrow ridges, in others into sharp pinnacles. The ice, white near the surface, becomes bluer and bluer as one looks deeper into a crevasse, which finally ends in a dark narrow crack. This gives the impression of im mense depth, but I do not believe that any of these crevasses are much over 150 feet deep. We sounded one and found it 123 feet. The best evidence, however, lies in the sections of the crevasses shown in the photograph of the ice-front from which plate 13 is reproduced, in which the crevasses do not extend to the water level, which in this part of the ice-front is less than 200 feet below the surface of the ice. The ribbon structure of Forbes was everywhere visible. On many of the pinnacles it could be seen cutting the stratification at a high angle. Melting and Drainage. The stakes put in the ice to measure the motion of the eastern part rose about 14 inches in 7 days, which indicates a melting of about 2 inches a day. This method is not reliable, and we can consider the result as only approximate. In this particular portion of the glacier the ice is very friable, and the water does not collect on the surface in pools and streams, but sinks through the ice and is carried off by some crevasse. The portions just west of G and between White glacier and I contain many sur face streams which pour into crevasses or moulins; but none of these streams were two large to leap, and all of them were per fectly clear.
1892 May 15
1892 Feb 19