National Geographic : 1892 Mar 31
110 Henry Gannett-Mother Maps of the United States. tucky have been prepared from traverses of the roads. These maps, which make no attempt to show the relief, are published on a scale of 2 miles to an inch. California.-Between 1860 and 1870 the state of California maintained a geologic survey, which, like all other well regulated geologic surveys, found it necessary to devote much of its means to making topographic maps. By this organization a large part of central California was mapped, the greater part being on a scale of 6 miles to an inch, while a small area about the bay of San Francisco was on a scale of 2 miles to an inch, the relief in both series of maps being expressed by hachures. New Jersey.-The only state which thus far has devised and put into operation a reasonable and economical plan for map ping its area is New Jersey. In 1877 this state commenced sur veys for a map in connection with its geologic survey upon a plan and by methods very similar to those subsequently adopted in the geologic survey of the United States. The work was con trolled by triangulation, in the main executed by the United States Coast and Geodetic survey and supplemented by the state survey. Minor control was furnished by means of traverse lines, and elevations were measured by spirit level and vertical angles. The resulting maps were published on a scale of one mile to an inch, in contours of 10 and 20 feet. When the state was about half surveyed the United States Geological survey undertook and carried the work through to completion upon the same plan and by the same methods which the state had originated. PRIVATE SURVEYS. In consequence of the neglect of the government in the matter of mapping this country, a wide field has been left open for pri vate enterprise, and this field has been worked actively, but with curious results. Maps have been produced by private parties of practically every county in the northern states and of some counties of the southern states. The material for these maps has been obtained by traverse surveys along the roads. These maps are generically similar, and can be characterized in a very few words. They are essentially diagrams of roads. The houses along the roads are generally represented, together with the names of the owners, as it is found that this aids in the sale of the maps. Streams are but feebly represented, and relief is rarely shown.
1892 May 15
1892 Feb 19