National Geographic : 1892 May 15
154 C. W. Hayes-Expedition through the Yukon District. these the eastern appears to be retreating much more rapidly than either of the others; but this eastern branch probably has its source in the same basin as the Frederika glacier, and it seems not improbable that by some means the drainage of the basin has been diverted from the western to the eastern outlet, thus causing the rapid retreat in the former glacier and advance in the latter. The large triple glacier above referred to flows from the high mountains forming the eastern members of the Wrangell group. After the union of its three branches the combined stream occu pies the valley of the Nizzenah for about six miles, crowding the river out of its channel and forming a berg-filled lake above the ice barrier. Its great volume, together with the distance which this glacier pushes down into the valley, indicate an increased precipitation, due to proximity to the Copper River valley through which pass the warm winds from the ocean. No glaciers flow into the Chittenah valley from the ranges on either side, though all the upper portions of the Wrangell group are snow-covered and doubtless the high ravines are filled with ice. Several large glaciers flow into the Copper River valley from the Coast range, although its altitude is not so great as that of many portions of the interior plateau, which is entirely free from summer snow. The largest of these Coast range tributaries of Copper river are Miles and Childs glaciers, named by Lieu tenant Allen in 1885. Several others of considerable size higher up the river do not appear on Allen's map, probably because he passed up the river while the surface was still covered with snow. Miles glacier is quite comparable in size with those of the St Elias region and is formed under essentially the same climatic conditions. It is evidently retreating at present, and the river spreads out in a lake-like expansion along its front in a part of the glacial channel from which the ice has receded. This ex pansion of the river is about a mile in width and one side is formed by the glacier front, a cliff of ice 350 feet above the water and over five miles in length. Although the ice no longer reaches entirely across the valley, there remains a heavy lateral moraine, indicating its former position and damming back the river as already described. The fact that the river has cut only part way through the moraine indicates a very recent recession of the glacier.
1893 Feb 08
1892 Mar 31