National Geographic : 1893 Feb 08
182 J. E. McGrath-The Alaskan Boundary Survey. to 703,000 cases. In the interior gold, copper and coal have been found, but as yet the most valuable exports are the many rich furs for which Alaska has long been noted. No feature of Alaska is more remarkable and noteworthy, geo graphically, than its great river, the Yukon. This mighty stream, rising within twenty miles of the Pacific ocean (estimated from the head of Lynn canal), flows for about 1,000 miles northwest erly, passing inside the arctic circle, near fort Yukon, and then, bending its course south-southwestward, flows on for another 1,000 miles until it reaches Bering sea. The Russians during their domination in Alaska did but little in the way of exploring the interior, and it remained for the hardy pioneers of the Western Union Telegraph expedition, who were occupied during 1866 and 1867 in selecting a route for a telegraph line to connect Europe and America by way of Siberia, established the identity of the river known to the British as the Lewes and to the Russians as the Kwikpak or Yukon. In the early days the trade of the river was divided between the two peoples just mentioned. The Hudson Bay company had established a post at fort Yukon, and the servants of this company received their goods by dog trains from the Mackenzie River district, extending their operations as far down the river as Nuklukayet, near the mouth of Tanana river, and so securing the trade which at the present day is considered the best in the Yukon district. The Russians had to bring their supplies up the Yukon in sailing vessels, and with this slow means of trans portation found Nulato far enough in the interior for their trad ing post. The English occupation of the site of fort Yukon con tinued until 1869. In that year Captain Raymond, of the United States Engineers, was sent up the river to determine the location of the post. A total eclipse of the sun afforded him an admirable opportunity to determine his longitude. This being supple mented by observations of the moon and moon-culminating stars, a latitude was observed; and then, as it was placed beyond doubt that the station was in the United States territory, the Hudson Bay company retired up Porcupine river to a point that the factor, Mr McDougall, thought was well within the British pos sessions. Captain Raymond also mapped the river between fort Yukon and its mouth, and when Lieutenant Schwatka made his famous raft journey down the river (from its head) in 1883 he supplemented Raymond's work, and for the first time a fair idea of the course of Yukon river was given to the world.
1893 Feb 20
1892 May 15