National Geographic : 1893 Feb 08
176 Dr Johannes Walther-The North American Deserts. is able to detach and sweep down a much larger amount of debris which afterward the Colorado carries out into the gulf of California. Thus we see in the canyon of the Colorado an interesting ex ample of the combined action of erosion and deflation. We recognize in the inner gorge a simple channel of erosion; we ob serve that the upper amphitheaters owe their existence to the cooperation of erosion and deflation. Now, what we here see in the Colorado, that we see every where on earth where the soil is not covered by a mantle of water, snow or vegetation. There is no need of traveling into the deserts in order to recognize the denuding activity of wind; and in the driest desert the traces of erosion may be observed. There is no region absolutely devoid of precipitation, and, on the other hand, deflation may be observed in the rainiest climate. When on a dry autumn day you walk along the highway and are annoyed by whirling clouds of dust, you are witnessing the denuding effect of wind. Every sand dune is the result of the same force. Every clay bed (" Lehmlager ") teaches how vast deposits are produced by wind, and the loess beds of China are supposed to be merely a product of deflation. We say of the wind that it "sweeps " over the ground; for this word means nothing else than that the wind cleans the ground of all loose particles that cover it. Translated into technical geologic lan guage, it is called " deflation," but that means nothing else than the every-day word "sweep." One must learn to recognize the sweeping activity of the wind not only in the desert but everywhere, and in so doing to de tect in its very beginning the process whose final product von Richthofen sees in the loess.
1893 Feb 20
1892 May 15