National Geographic : 1894 Mar 17
Gorges and Glaciation. small and have only formed narrow gorges. Opposite Napa noch is a small creek which has cut a deep gorge into the shares, and in the higher part of the slope has bared the grit from an area of considerable size, which is surrounded by high cliffs. The stream opposite Wawarsing has cut a gorge and removed an area of the grit on the upper slopes of the mountain, but does not cut through to the shale. The head of this depression ex tends into the head of the depression opposite Napanoch, and both are surmounted on the east by a continuous line of high cliffs. The stream which flows out of the mountain at Port Hixon is larger than the others and has cut a deep, wide gorge; but owing to the lower dip of the grit it does not appear to have cut through to the shales to any great extent. No shales were observed in place in the depression, but a small amount of shale debris was noticed at one point. Everywhere along the steep slopes there are clefts in the grit, some of which appear to extend down to the shales. One of these is the "Ice cave," a locality which is widely famous in the region. It is high in the slope, about two miles east-northeast of Ellenville. Ice and snow re main in it in greater or less amount, and in some seasons they are preserved entirely through the summer and autumn. In the vicinity there is also an old copper mine from which large sup plies of fine quartz crystals were obtained some years ago. The top of the mountain southwest of Wawarsing is a wide plateau which is traversed by the valley of Stony creek. Its surface is very irregular and low cliffs of the bare grit abound. The grit in the higher portion of Shawagunk mountain nearly everywhere presents a basined surface. These basins are depressed an inch or two below the general level and are of various sizes and shapes. They usually contain pools of water and some sand and pebble detritus. They are mostly smooth and even polished and are distributed all over the mountain, but particularly on the western slope. With the polishing are associated lines of glacial scorings and striation which are con spicuous at nearly every locality. Julien* has recorded the direc tion of some of these strike and scorings. The general direction is southwestward and the average depth is between one-sixteenth and one-eighth of an inch. In the vicinity of Sams point the most abundant scratches trend south 460 west and south 29° west. * New York Academy of Sciences, Trans., vol. iii, pp. 22-29.
1894 Apr 25
1894 Feb 14