National Geographic : 1894 Dec 29
186 J. W.Redway-The First Landfall of Columvbus. Now, if Samana must be dropped without discussion because it appears on a map on which Guanahani also appears, Watling island must also be dropped for the same reason, for it appears with Guanahani on the map of R. and I. Ottens, and on at least half a score of other maps, probably contemporaneous, that the author has examined in the British Museum. But at the risk of being " ruled out of court " myself, I shall attempt to show that not only can Samana be Guanahani and itself, but also that for one hundred years or more Samana was Guanahani and itself at the same time. In the first place, let us look at the map of la Cosa * (see plate 10). On this map it will be observed that the name Samana may apply to any one of three islands. It is about as near to Guanahani as either of the others, though it is hardly possible to decide upon which it is intended to apply. Incidentally it may be noted that the island which la Cosa marks Haiti is not the one at present bearing the name. That name, in fact, has been transferred to the island Columbus named la Espafiola. Moreover, the transference of names on early maps was by no means an uncommon thing. If Johann Schoner had not carelessly transferred the name " Parias" from the Spanish main to Mexico, instead of putting the rightful " Lariab " there, it is doubtful if the northern part of the western continent would have been called America. An in spection of a very few maps of the sixteenth century will show that the transference and reduplication of names was made in a wholesale manner. The map of Herrera (see figure 1), upon which Messrs Major and Markham lay so much stress, furnishes but little evidence not found in the map of la Cosa, and although nearly one hun dred years later, it is hardly more than a copy of the latter. The most notable difference is in the shape of Guanahani. The east and-west position by which the Admiral describes it and which it has on la Cosa's chart has been changed to a north-and-south trend. Furthermore, it is no longer northeast of the island of Someto, but almost due north. The island of Samana on the map of Herrera has the same distance and bearings from Someto that Guanahani has on the map of la Cosa. Just why Messrs Major and Markham place so much confidence in the map of * The critical part of this map has been traced by the author, copying not only the outlines as found, but inserting their names also, each in the place it occupies on the original.
1895 Apr 20