National Geographic : 1896 Mar
SURVEY AND SUBDIVISION OF INDIAN TERRITORY 115 the triangulation points being marked in a very permanent man ner. The triangulation rests upon a base line measured on the track of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railway near Savanna, and the astronomical position of this place was determined as the initial position. The subdivision parties, by which is to be understood the par ties engaged in running the section lines, are grouped, four of them being in charge of an experienced surveyor connected with the permanent corps of the United States Geological Survey, who supervises the work closely and attends to the executive man agement of the outfit, and who, moreover, commonly with the aid of an assistant, maps the topography of the area subdivided. This latter duty is rendered light by the fact that the surveyor in running the lines locates the points of crossing of every stream, road, or other natural or artificial feature which he encounters in the course of his line. Thus at intervals of a mile or less all the features are located and little remains for the topographer to do except to sketch these features between these points of location. The progress made in this survey up to the end of January of the present year is set forth in a report which has been made to the Secretary of the Interior. It appears from this that in the primary triangulation 49 stations have been selected, signals built upon them and angles measured from them. By means of these stations an area of about 10,000 square miles, or about five-twelfths of the area of the Territory, excluding the Chicka saw nation, has been controlled. In the subdivision work 11,770 miles had been run out of an estimated amount of 47,000 miles to complete the Territory, or about one-fourth of the entire work. Of the above mileage 970 miles are of standard lines that is, standard parallels and correction lines; 1,790 miles are exterior lines of townships, 8,770 miles are section lines, and the remaining 240 miles are the meander lines of streams. The work thus far done completes the subdivision of 128 full townships and 26 fractional townships. It is included mainly in the western part of the Choctaw nation, embraces all of the Seminole country and some of the Creek country, while standard lines have been run into the Cherokee nation. The progress is represented upon the sketch map accompanying this paper. The mapping of topography has followed closely after the work of subdivision, and up to the date given above an area of 4,200 square miles had been thus mapped.