National Geographic : 1896 May
THE National Geographic Magazine VOL. VII MAY, 1896 No. 5 AFRICA SINCE 1888, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTH AFRICA AND ABYSSINIA* By Hon. GARDINER G. HUBBARD, LL. D., Presidentof the National GeographicSociety Eight years ago I selected Africa as the subject of my annual address before the National Geographic Society. Since then the nations of Europe, seeking new outlets for trade and possible homes for their surplus population, have taken possession of the larger part of the continent. They have developed Africa more rapidly than in any preceding age, and have greatly increased our knowledge of it. Africa and America were discovered about the same time-the one by Portugal, the other by Spain. Soon afterward the slave trade was established between the two continents to supply the place of Indian labor, the natives of America, unable to stand the tasks imposed upon them by the Spaniards, having been extermi nated. This trade proved so profitable that England soon took part in it, exchanging her products for slaves transported to the Spanish colonies in America. This continued for two hun dred and fifty years, or until the early part of the nineteenth century, when the slave trade was abolished and the trade in intoxicating liquors substituted, which has been to the African a greater evil than the slave trade. A recent writer says that four million gallons of the most poisonous gin and rum are im ported yearly into the Nagos and Niger coast protectorates. *Annual presidential address, delivered April 24, 1896.