National Geographic : 1896 Jul
230 THE SEINE, THE MEUSE, AND THE MOSELLE ume of the Toul to the formerly small volume of the Pompey, the valley has been distinctly deepened both down and up stream from the elbow of capture below the former level of the streams and now exhibits the steep-sided trench characteristic of recent captures. Not only the diverted Toul but several of its branches above the elbow of capture have intrenched them selves beneath the general level of the open valley-plain of lower o6lite strata on which they formerly flowed. On restoring the surface of this old valley floor by filling up the trenches which now dissect it, it may be seen to slope at such a grade as would lead it to the floor of the meandering valley on the way to the Meuse. Immediately after the division of the Toul we may imagine that only a small stream-the Pagny-fed by the drain age from the valley slopes, was left to follow the meandering valley to Meuse. This would be the diminished, beheaded stream of our terminology. But in consequence of the develop ment of the deep trench at the elbow of capture and the accom panying growth of the obsequent stream-the Ingressin-the beheaded Pagny has been still further shortened and is now not more than two and one-half miles in length.* The Pagny and the Ingressin.-Letme here turn a moment from the main subject to consider some special features of the me andering valley and its present occupants, the Pagny and the Ingressin. In the first place, midway in the valley, at the village of Foug, there is a little stream coming in from the Bois Romont on the north.. The topographic details of the district give good reason for thinking that this little stream used to join the valley at Lay-St.-Remy on the next meander to the west, and thus we have here a repetition of an accident of the Ste. Austreberte type. When the vigorous Toul was running through this valley and widening its meander belt it must have pushed its swinging current so vigorously against the outer side of its curves that it cut through the ridge separating the Foug meander from the little stream on the north, and thus changed the mouth of its own tributary from a lower to an upper meander. This may be added to the evidence indicating the former passage of a large river through the meandering valley. Next as to the obsequent Ingressin, whose head is at least six *The following altitudes are significant: Junction of the Meurthe and the Moselle at Pompey, about 190 m. Elbow of capture at Toul, 204 m. Old valley floor at elbow of capture, about 255 m. Divide between Ingressin and Pagny, 265 m. Junction of the Pagny and the Meuse, 245 m.