National Geographic : 1896 Dec
GEOGRAPHIC WORK IN PERU 407 millions, both showing a slight increase over the preceding year. As to public service in transportation, the total number of passengers carried was 507 millions, or, to put the figures in another form, the number of passengers carried one mile was 12,188 millions. This is a decrease from the preceding year of 1,200 millions, showing the extent to which the depression in business has affected the migrations of the people. On an average, every man, woman, and child in the country traveled by rail a distance of 175 miles during the year. The number of tons of freight moved was 697 millions, the number moved one mile being 85,227 mil lions, an increase of 4,892 millions over the preceding year. The gross income of the railroads was 1,075 million dollars, an increase of two millions, and the net income 350 millions, an increase of 7.7 millions. The dividends declared during the year amounted to 56 millions, or about 1.1 per cent on the capital stock. H. G. GEOGRAPHIC WORK IN PERU In several of the South American republics there are flourishing geo graphic societies. There, as in Russia and a few other countries, the geographic organization is a nucleus of general scientific activity, and geography becomes the foster-mother of various sciences, including geology, mineralogy, meteorology, botany, zoology, archeology, ethnology, etc. This is eminently true of the " Sociedad Geografica de Lima," the leading scientific society of Peru. Its active membership is large, vigor ous, and widely distributed, including many of the best known profes sional men and civil and military officers of the country. The ex officio president is the President of the Republic, and the ex oficio vice-president is the Minister of Foreign Affairs; the present president of the council is Dr D. Luis Carranza, F. R.S ., a widely known publicist, and the secretary is Ir D. Federico Elguera, kinsman of a diplomatic official favorably known in Washington. The honorary membership includes several active mem bers of the National Geographic Society. The society issues a " boletin " of which the third trimester of the fifth volume has recently appeared; its contents indicate the breadth of the field occupied by the society. The opening article is the itinerary of Raimondi-" El inmortal Raimondi, creador de la Geograffa Peruana," as he is styled by a leading Peruvian geographer-among the mountains of Huancayo in 1866; the second article is an exposition of a graphic method of determining latitudes and meridians; the third is the report of the delegate to the sixth Interna tional Geographic Congress in London; then follows a list of the common and systematic names of Peruvian plants. Sixteen pages are devoted to a description of Peruvian hydrography, and there is a classic contribution to the knowledge of aboriginal linguistics occupying forty-two of the large octavo pages. A brief account of the Victoria regia, " la reina del Ama zonas " follows, and the fascicle closes with a series of elaborate meteoro logic records, including the official tables prepared by the National Academy of Medicine.