National Geographic : 1897 Nov
THE RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 1897 inhabitants per square mile; the Caucasus, 53.7, and European Russia, 50.6. Siberia contains only one person to each square mile, and the Steppes eight persons. Mr John Karel, Consul-General of the United States at St Pe tersburg, points out the peculiar distribution of the population of European Russia. He says: The distribution of the 94,000,000 inhabitants in European Russia de pends principally upon the natural and economic conditions of the plain of Russia, which is cut diagonally from Podolia and Bessarabia to the government of Viatka by the chernoziom (black earth) region. This region comprises less than 658,740 square miles, but if the non-chernoziom governments, in which is included the Moscow industrial district, be added thereto, it contains more than 746,572 square miles, i. e., two-fifths of the whole plain of European Russia, which, according to the census, is inhabited by 63,000,000 people, or by two-thirds of the whole popula tion of European Russia. The most compact population is centered on the narrow strip formed by the governments of Podolia, the chernoziom part of Volyn, the larger part of Kiev and Poltava, the chernoziom part of Chernigov, the non steppe chernoziom parts of Kharkov and Voronezsh, and the chernoziom parts of Orel, Tambov, Riazan, and Tula. The present tendency of population to drift to the cities, less marked in Russia than in Europe generally, is shown by the fact that there are no fewer than 123 cities in which the population exceeds 25,000. The 20 most populous cities are as follows: St Petersburg, 1,267,023; Moscow, 988,610; Warsaw, 614,752; Odes sa, 404,651; Lodz, 314,780; Riga, 282,943; Kiev, 248,750; Khar kov, 170,682; Tiflis, 159,862; Vilna, 159,568 ; Tashkent, 156,506; Saratov, 133,116; Kazan, 131,508; Ekaterinoslav, 121,216; Ros toff-on-Don, 119,889; Astrakhan, 113,075; Baku, 112,253; Tula, 111,048; Kishinev, 108,506; Nijni-Novgorod, 98,503. A.W.G. The surprisingly early availability of the Russian census returns is due to the employment of the Hollerith tabulating machine, first used for census purposes by the United States government in 1890. Out of 2,403,750 Germans who left their'native land between 1871 and 1896 about 96 per cent emigrated to the United States. Failing to divert the tide of emigration toward the German colonies in Africa, the govern ment is now seeking to direct it toward certain parts of South America, in preference to the United States, where the peculiarities, language, and customs of the Germans are lost by assimilation and emigrants become competitors with the artisans and agriculturists of the mother country.