National Geographic : 1898 Mar
ICELAND, GREENLAND, AND VINELAND 83 which was found imbedded in the yellow sand and seemed to have been lost before the advent of the Northmen, and presuma bly belonged to the savages they found here. Probably the reader will contrast these different dwellings of the Northmen with those of the native tribes of North America, from the magnificent ruins of Copan to the long, narrow houses of the Iroquois, and will detect the similarities and differences between these and the habitations of the Greenland Eskimos. The Spanish, Dutch, French, and English explorers visited and might have built houses on these shores, but in Europe no houses of this type are found outside of Iceland, except in the Faroes, and, although ruins of Norse dwellings are probably awaiting detection in England, Scotland, Orkney, and Shetland, they have not yet been brought to the notice of archeologists.* The earliest examples of architecture on our shores, as well as the present knowledge of the evolution of European architecture, as far as I have been able to find out, show that the walls of the inferior houses in post-Columbian times were unlike those of Iceland. Our oldest French house is the Sillery manor house near Quebec, built by the Jesuits in 1637. The walls of this house are built of stone, and are three feet thick, laid in mortar which is now nearly as hard as the stone itself. I have been unable to find anything more primitive of French workmanship here. I have found nothing in English work which is not famil iar to you all, although I have followed up several mistaken re ports. The Dutch buildings show an equally advanced though different type of development, and also the Spanish. I am glad to have an opportunity to express publicly my sin cere thanks and deep indebtedness to the American archeologists, both here and in Canada, who have come most kindly to my assistance and taught me in the field the knowledge they had acquired by their own experience, without which I could not have learned how to gather many facts, a few of which I have here presented. MR GERARD FOWKE: Seven weeks of field work in and near Cambridge. Two weeks of field work in Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Mary land, 1894. Five weeks in Cambridge, 1896. DR FRANZ BOAS: Two days in and near Cambridge, 1894. MR DAVID BOYLE, Curatorof the CanadianInstitute at Toronto: One week in and near Cambridge. One week in Ontario, Canada, 1894. One week in Cambridge, 1896. * Since writing this I have been notified that ancient Norse ruins have been found in the Hebrides.