National Geographic : 1898 Apr
112 THE NORTHWEST PASSES TO THE YUKON In 1884 Dr Everette, U. S. A., crossed the Chilkat pass along the Krause route, intending to explore westward and descend the Copper river, cooperating with Lieut. Abercrombie, who at tempted the exploration of Copper river from its mouth; but neither plan was followed to completion. When Lieut. H. T. Allen explored the Copper river in 1885, his party ascended to the headwaters, crossed the divide to the Tanana, and descended that stream to the Yukon. In 1890 Mr E. J. Glave, leading an expedition sent out by the Frank Leslie's Weekly newspaper, followed the Doctors Krause's routeto the Alsek basin,went northward and returning descended the Alsek to the ocean at Dry bay. In 1891 Mr Glave proved his claim that pack horses could be taken over the range and could find sufficient pasturage in the bush country beyond. His " Pio neer Pack-horses in Alaska," published in The Century magazine, September and October, 1892, describes his route across to Lake Arkell, a route now known as the Dalton trail-Jack Dalton having been his assistant in the experiment with pack-horses. The existence of a lower pass still further east, to be reached by an easy trail from Skagway creek, was reported to Mr Wil liam Ogilvie during his survey of 1887, and Capt. Moore of his party was detailed to explore it. He determined the altitude of the pass as 2,400 feet above sea-level, and named it in honor of Hon. Thomas White, Canadian Minister of the Interior. It was at once seen that White pass most easily allowed a wagon road to be constructed across to Lake Bennett-a distance of 47 miles and a rise of 2.400 feet, in contrast to the distance of 27 miles and a rise of 3,500 feet on the Chilkoot, Shaseki, or Perrier pass, again named as the Dyea pass by Mr Ogilvie. The passes to the Yukon basin from Taku inlet and river were known to H. B. Co. traders and the W. U. T. Co. surveyors, but were first definitely exploited as a route to the Yukon mining regions by the expedition of Lieut. Schwatka, U. S. A., and Dr C. Willard Hayes, of the U S. Geological Survey, in 1891. They followed the north fork of the Taku river and crossed to Lake Teslin, where they launched canvas boats and proceeded without interruption to Fort Selkirk. The river connecting Lake Teslin with the Lewes-known to the Indians as Teslintoo, and as the Hootalinqua or " Hoody-Link " to the miners-was marked on the Coast Survey chart at the time as the Nas-a-thane, or "no sal mon," and was renamed the Newberry river by Lieut. Schwatka.