National Geographic : 1899 Sep
GEOGRAPHIC MISCELLANEA senate. The Finnish railway will be connected with the Russian system by bridging the Neva. THE projected ship canal from Georgian bay to Montreal would mean a saving of 725 miles in the transportation of grain from Chicago to Liver pool. The canal would run from Georgian bay eastward through the French river to Lake Nipissing, thence through a small tributary to the Ottawa river, and on to Ottawa and the St Lawrence. All but 29 miles is open river and lake waters. THE schooner Julia E. Whalen has returned to San Francisco from a cruise to the Galapagos islands, west of Ecuador. The vessel carried the scientific expedition sent out last autumn by Leland Stanford University, under the patronage of Timothy Hopkins, of San Francisco. It is re ported that a splendid collection of specimens of live land tortoises, birds, fish, etc., has been brought back. TWENTY six-wheel connected side-tank locomotives were built recently at the Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works for the Swedish state railways for use north of the Arctic circle. While they have a foreign appearance, they are built strictly in accordance with American practice, with a few exceptions, the most notable of which are the copper fire-box and copper hollow water-space stays. A PAKTY from the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey is now engaged in gathering information on Long Island sound for a new supplement that is soon to be issued of the Coast Pilot Chart. Four topographic and three hydrographic parties are also at work near the head of the Chesapeake bay, and, at the request of the Navy Department, special examinations are being made near Governors Island, New York harbor, and at Pollock Rip, off Cape Cod. Andree and His Balloon, by H. Lachambre and A. Machuron, who ac companied the expedition to Spitzbergen, recently published by Archi bald Constable, Westminster, England (crown octavo, $1.50), describes the inception and preparation of Andree's hazardous enterprise. The book also contains a brief biography of Andree, about whom compara tively little is known in this country, and is beautifully illustrated by 40 full-page cuts from photographs taken by the authors. TEN maps recently issued for gratuitous distribution by the U. S Geo logical Survey embody the results of the explorations and surveys made by the parties sent to Alaska in 1898 by the War Department and by the Survey. The maps are a convenient compilation of recent Alaskan sur veys, and also a summary of our present geographic knowledge of the country. Application for them can be made either to Senators or Rep resentatives or to the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. DURING the past ten years a fuller recognition of the place of the great circle route in the problem of accelerating ocean transit has stimulated an advance to methods by which great circle courses can be taken from the Solar Azimuth Tables or measured from the chart compass with very great facility. These new developments have been recently incorporated in a second edition of The Development of Great Circle Sailing by G. W. Littlehales, issued from the U. S . Hydrographic Office as Bulletin No. 90.