National Geographic : 1899 Sep
354 CLOUD WORK OF THE WEATHER BUREAU nently useful to meteorology, and that they are needed is seen from the following considerations: The Smithsonian tables and the International tables are adapted for the reduction from ele vations 2,000 meters or less to the sea-level; but in cloud-work it is necessary to reduce at will throughout a region up to 15,000 meters in height and with ranges of temperature from + 30° to - 60° centigrade, which is far beyond the limits of any existing tables. The Hertz diagram for adiabatic expansion leaves out the vapor contents of the air in parts of the formula, introduc ing errors as much as 0.30 inch in pressure. Besides, it is de sirable to be able to start with surface conditions and compute upward in exact figures all the elements existing in the cloud, and also the gradients connecting one level with another. Since the atmosphere differs very widely from the adiabatic laws, one of our problems is to discuss how much this departure is for all seasons of the year, and from these data we expect to study carefully the laws of solar insolation and terrestrial radi ation-that is, the actinometry of the atmosphere-by means of this new and improved material. Finally, there are no tables published which are available for computing the dynamic forces indicated by the equations, and this is necessary if meteorology is to be made an exact science. (3) The possession of all this new matter enables us to analyze closely the Ferrel theory of the local cyclone and the German theory of the same, which differ from each other, and to show that they are both only ideal solu tions of vortices and do not conform to the stream lines given by the observations. An attempt has been made to interpret the analytical equations of motion, so that they shall match the observed facts, and this leads to a different idea of the circula tion in storms from that commonly taught by meteorologists. The application of the theory to tornadoes is certainly satisfac tory, and in the case of hurricanes and cyclones it is on the whole very promising. THE new treaty between the United States and Japan went into effect on July 17. The main feature of the treaty is the abolition of the jurisdiction of the United States consular courts in Japan. Henceforth all the exceptional privileges, exemp tions, and immunities formerly enjoyed by citizens of the United States, as a part of or appurtenant to such jurisdiction, will absolutely cease and all such jurisdiction will be assumed and exercised by Japanese courts.