National Geographic : 1992 Dec
Geoguide FIERY LAVA FROM A KILAUEA VENT GENERATES A CLOUD OF STEAM AS IT HITS THE OCEAN ALONG HAWAII'S SHORELINE (ABOVE). SCHOOLGIRLS' HARD HATS IN SAKURAJIMA, JAPAN (LEFT), PROTECT AGAINST THE CON STANT THREAT OF ASH AND ROCKS FALL ING FROM A NEARBY VOLCANO. VOLCANOES RING THE PACIFIC OCEAN (RIGHT) ALONG THE EDGES OF HUGE PLATES THAT MAKE UP EARTH'S CRUST. STUCK IN STONE, A TRUCK (BELOW) IS PERMANENTLY PARKED ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII-TRAPPED BY HARDENED LAVA. Volcanoes *To simulate a volcano's lava flow, first make a simple model of a steep hill by crumpling a piece of paper. Put it on a card board base. For realism, include details such as toy houses, trees, and cars. Mix two cups of corn starch with a cup of water, and stir it into a thick paste. Pour the "lava" paste over the model hill. It will flow across the landscape much like real lava. (Dispose of the paste in the trash, not down a drain.) * Volcanoes can dump thick layers of ash on communities. To see what that's like, shake cornstarch on the roof of a house made by taping together three-by-five-inch cards. Sprin kle water on the "ash" to simu late rain. What happens? What other dangers do you think people living near volcanoes face? * Volcanoes are found in many densely popu lated areas around the Pacific. Why do so many millions of people live so close to volcanic peaks in spite of the dangers and disrup tions? (Consider volca nic soil, population pressure, chance.) Compare the dangers from volcanoes with other natural risks people face around the world (hurricanes, floods, fires). USE THE GEOGUIDE PAGE ALONG WITH THE ARTICLE "VOLCANOES: CRUCIBLES OF CREATION" IN THIS ISSUE TO HELP CAPTURE THE INTEREST OF YOUNG READERS AND STIMULATE DISCUSSION WITH THEM. GEOGUIDE IS PUBLISHED FOUR TIMES A YEAR.