National Geographic : 1997 Jul
1. Theater of Pompey 2. Odeum (concert hall) 3. Pantheon 4. Theater of Marcellus 5. Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus 6. Temple of Juno Moneta 7. Trajan's column 8. Basilica Julia 9. Roman Forum 10. Curia (senate house) 11. Basilica Aemilia 12. Forums of the emperors 13. Temple of Vesta 14. Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine 15. Circus Maximus 16. Palatine Hill 17. Temple of Elagabalus 18. Temple of Venus and Rome 19. Septizodium (monument built by Septimius Severus) 20. Aqueduct of Claudius 21. Temple of the Divine Claudius 22. Arch of Constantine 23. Colossus of Nero 24. Colosseum (Flavian amphitheater) 25. School of the gladiators 26. Baths of Titus MUSEO DELLA CIVILTA ROMANA, ROME (LEFT); ART BY WILLIAM H. BOND ETERNAL CITY From its rude origins as an eighth-century B.C. village of thatch huts near the Tiber River, Rome ripened into one of the richest, most powerful metropo lises the world has ever witnessed. Its monumental grandeur-and its mar bled congestion- is seen in a meticulous model (left) showing Rome dur ing the reign of Constan tine (A.D. 306-337), when the city reached its greatest size, with perhaps a mil lion residents. To glorify themselves, emperors built temples andforums, palaces and triumphal arches. To keep the public happy, they erected theaters, baths, and huge arenas like the Colosseum. After Constantine built a new capital at Byzan tium in 324 and renamed it Constantinople, Rome fell into decline. A photo graph (right) taken from the same vantage point as the model reveals how a history of sackings, earthquakes, and neglect has erased many of the great structures. Now pol lution and vibrations from traffic threaten the redoubtable Colosseum.