National Geographic : 1982 Oct
of curtailing housing expansion. As mayor of Sunnyvale, Dianne McKenna joined her city council in declaring a four-month mora torium on new industrial building, during which limits were voted on waste water and the number of employees per building for new plants. Campaigning against the runaway growth that threatens the quality of life that once inspired the nickname Valley of Heart's Delight, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and 37-year Santa Clara County resident Wallace Stegner cautions, "It hap pens slyly. You see an orchard go next to you, but there are still a lot of orchards. Then it becomes catastrophic." "The problems are the growing pains of any community that grew fast after World War II, plus the breakneck speed of change in Silicon Valley companies," says Bob Kirkwood, Hewlett-Packard's manager of government affairs. "The start-ups of the 1960s are just beginning to have the luxury of lifting their heads to look around." As they do, some have gained a special view of the universe. Cherry Lorenzini, whose husband Bob's company, Siltec, pro duces the silicon wafers from which chips are made, says: "I can point out a satellite to my kids in the night sky and say, 'You know, there might be some of our silicon up there.'" Proud of her role, she says, "For a man to reach his moon, he needs a support team. Bob designed his first crystal-growing furnace on our dining-room table. We were the little guys going in and eating up the competing companies. His dream was to take Siltec from scratch to 50 million dollars; now the goal is 150 million. But for the men in this industry, it's total dedication," she adds. "I merged my dreams with his, but many women can't accept their limited roles in their husbands' lives." There are other problems. "It's a tremen dously striving, intellectually oriented pop ulation. They tend to be workaholics who can fall prey to alcoholism, divorce, and de pression," says Dr. Rudolph Grziwok, di rector of the county's Fairoaks Mental Health Center in Sunnyvale. "Burn out" has become a common valley syndrome, for not all can maintain the winner profile. In this environment, relationships can suffer. Driving home in his Mercedes-Benz 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 California'sSilicon Valley multi billion dollar familq GENEALOGYof Silicon Valley chip companies charts the enterprise of engineers and executives who rose infirms, then spun off to develop their own companies. A new era in electronics grew from the invention of the transistorat Bell Telephone Labs (1). Co-inventorWilliam Shockley came west andfounded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory (2) to try to develop silicon transistors.One of eight Shockley men who left to form Fairchild(3), Robert Noyce devised the chip-a simultaneous invention ofJack Kilby at Texas Instruments in Dallas,now the world's largest semiconductor company. Among Fairchildalumni are the valley's top three firms-National Semiconductor (4), Noyce's Intel (5), andAdvanced Micro Devices (6). Silicon Valley companies now control 20 percent of the 16-billion-dollar world semiconductor market.