National Geographic : 1987 May
citizen. "They came in, and people were confused. Some fought on one side, some on the other. They wrecked us. Then the Rus sians came and took the land. They said they were just going to take from the landlords, but they took the little farms too." Some of those smallholdings are today part of a superfarm named Hammer and Sickle, where I went one day. With 11,600 acres, it supports 1,200 families. Its chair person, Zinaida Lozhovska, a buxom grandmother-and tough enough to string barbed wire-has earned a reputation for taking good care of her workers. They enjoy urban amenities: dry cleaner, beauty parlor, restaurant. In a dairy building, a sauna soothes tired milkmaids. To the gentle countryside around Lviv even on Mrs. Lozhovska's superfarm horse-drawn wagons lend an antique flavor. Farm managers encourage their use; as a tractor driver acknowledged, "Horses don't eat gas." Perhaps nostalgia plays a part. Many a western Ukrainian remembers when peasants owned land, when it was said, "There is no peasant without a horse." I listened to three oldsters recalling those times. One said: "My father had two horses, one pig, one cow-that was nothing. I went to school barefoot with a piece of stale bread.