National Geographic : 1960 May
before the prevailing wind. Today the reef is marked on charts, but it still takes its toll of ships, the latest a sponge boat sunk atop a pile of cannon balls from an 18th-century Ottoman frigate. The two deep wrecks we saw that first day have since been identified as Byzantine cargo carriers of the 6th and 7th centuries. At least two other big cargo ships - used by the wine carriers of Rhodes-came to grief there in the last half of the 1st century. One littered a hundred square yards of bottom tomb, one of the ancients' seven wonders, begun for King Mausolus by his widow about 353 B.C. The word "mausoleum" derives from his name. several feet deep in smashed amphorae. The other came to rest in one piece, her deck car go of 5,000 wine jars still stacked as they were the day she left Rhodes. A handful of civili zations - Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Tur kish-have left relics on that savage reef. As I write these words, I can think calmly of these discoveries. But that first day with Captain Kemal on the Mandalinci was a frenzy of photographs and dives and excite ment. And of frustrating conversations trying (Continued on page 695) 691 Centuries later Crusaders used stones from the ruined edifice to build the massive castle of St. Peter commanding the harbor.